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Open Access Trichostatin A Promotes Cardiomyocyte Differentiation of Rat Mesenchymal Stem Cells After 5-Azacytidine Induction or During Coculture With Neonatal Cardiomyocytes Via a Mechanism Independent of Histone Deacetylase Inhibition

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This study was to investigate the effect of trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, on cardiac differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro. Rat MSCs were isolated and divided into six groups: 1) control; 2) 5-azacytidine treatment (5-aza, 10 μM); 3) treatment with TSA (100, 300, and 500 nM); 4) treatment with 5-aza followed by incubation with TSA; 5) coculture with neonatal cardiomyocytes (CMs); and 6) treatment with TSA then coculture with CMs. HDAC activity was significantly inhibited in TSA-treated cells with the maximal inhibition after 24 h of exposure to TSA at 300 nM. No changes in HDAC activity were observed in control, 5-aza-treated, or coculture groups. Following 7 days of differentiation, the expression of early cardiac transcription factors GATA-4, NKx2.5, MEF2c, and cardiac troponin T (cTnT) was increased by 6‐8 times in the cells in 5-aza-treated, coculture, or TSA-treated groups over control as determined using real-time PCR, immunofluorescence staining, and Western blotting. However, the percent cTnT-positive cells were dramatically different with 0.7% for control, 10% for 5-aza-treated, 25% for coculture, and 4% for TSA-treated group (500 nM). TSA treatment of the cells pretreated with 5-aza or cocultured with CMs dramatically increased the expression of GATA-4, NKx2.5, and MEF2c by 35‐50 times over control. The cTnT protein expression was also significantly increased by over threefold by TSA treatment (500 nM) in both 5-aza-treated and coculture group over control. The percent cTnT-positive cells in both 5-aza-pre-treated and coculture groups were significantly increased by TSA treatment after 1 week of differentiation by up to 92.6% (from 10.3% to 19.8%) and 23.9% (from 24.5% to 30.2%), respectively. These data suggested that TSA enhanced the cardiac differentiation of MSCs after 5-aza induction or during coculture with CMs through a mechanism beyond the inhibition of HDAC activity.

Keywords: 5-Azacytidine; Cardiac differentiation; Coculture; Histone deacetylase; Mesenchymal stem cells; Trichostatin A

Document Type: Research Article


Affiliations: Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Pediatric Institute of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China

Publication date: 2012-05-01

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  • Cell Transplantation publishes original, peer-reviewed research and review articles on the subject of cell transplantation and its application to human diseases. To ensure high-quality contributions from all areas of transplantation, separate section editors and editorial boards have been established. Articles deal with a wide range of topics including physiological, medical, preclinical, tissue engineering, and device-oriented aspects of transplantation of nervous system, endocrine, growth factor-secreting, bone marrow, epithelial, endothelial, and genetically engineered cells, among others. Basic clinical studies and immunological research papers are also featured. To provide complete coverage of this revolutionary field, Cell Transplantation will report on relevant technological advances, and ethical and regulatory considerations of cell transplants. Cell Transplantation is now an Open Access journal starting with volume 18 in 2009, and therefore there will be an inexpensive publication charge, which is dependent on the number of pages, in addition to the charge for color figures. This will allow work to be disseminated to a wider audience and also entitle the corresponding author to a free PDF, as well as prepublication of an unedited version of the manuscript.
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