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Open Access Local Transplantation of Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor-Mobilized Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells for Unhealing Bone Fractures

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We previously reported the therapeutic potential of human peripheral blood (hPB) CD34+ cells for bone fracture healing via vasculogenesis/angiogenesis and osteogenesis. Transplantation of not only hPB CD34+ cells but also hPB total mononuclear cells (MNCs) has shown their therapeutic efficiency for enhancing ischemic neovascularization. Compared with transplantation of purified hPB CD34+ cells, transplantation of hPB MNCs is more attractive due to its simple method of cell isolation and inexpensive cost performance in the clinical setting. Thus, in this report, we attempted to test a hypothesis that granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized (GM) hPB MNC transplantation could also contribute to fracture healing via vasculogenesis/angiogenesis and osteogenesis. Nude rats with unhealing fractures received local administration of the following materials with atelocollagen: 1 × 107 GM hPB MNCs (Hi group), 1 × 106 GM hPB MNCs (Lo group), or PBS (PBS group). Immunohistochemistry and real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) demonstrated human cell-derived vasculogenesis and osteogenesis in the Hi and Lo groups, but not in the PBS group at week 1. Intrinsic angiogenesis and osteogenesis assessed by rat capillary, osteoblast density, and real-time RT-PCR analysis was significantly enhanced in the Hi group compared to the other groups. Blood flow assessment by laser doppler perfusion imaging showed a significantly higher blood flow ratio at week 1 in the Hi group compared with the other groups. Morphological fracture healing was radiographically and histologically confirmed in about 30% of animals in the Hi group at week 8, whereas all animals in the other groups resulted in nonunion. Local transplantation of GM hPB MNCs contributes to fracture healing via vasculogenesis/angiogenesis and osteogenesis.

Keywords: CD34+ cells; Fracture healing; Mononuclear cells; Osteogenesis; Vasculogenesis

Document Type: Research Article


Affiliations: Group of Vascular Regeneration, Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan

Publication date: April 1, 2012

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  • Cell Transplantation publishes original, peer-reviewed research and review articles on the subject of cell transplantation and its application to human diseases. To ensure high-quality contributions from all areas of transplantation, separate section editors and editorial boards have been established. Articles deal with a wide range of topics including physiological, medical, preclinical, tissue engineering, and device-oriented aspects of transplantation of nervous system, endocrine, growth factor-secreting, bone marrow, epithelial, endothelial, and genetically engineered cells, among others. Basic clinical studies and immunological research papers are also featured. To provide complete coverage of this revolutionary field, Cell Transplantation will report on relevant technological advances, and ethical and regulatory considerations of cell transplants. Cell Transplantation is now an Open Access journal starting with volume 18 in 2009, and therefore there will be an inexpensive publication charge, which is dependent on the number of pages, in addition to the charge for color figures. This will allow work to be disseminated to a wider audience and also entitle the corresponding author to a free PDF, as well as prepublication of an unedited version of the manuscript.

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