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Open Access Derivation of High-Purity Definitive Endoderm From Human Parthenogenetic Stem Cells Using an In Vitro Analog of the Primitive Streak

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Human parthenogenetic stem cells (hpSCs) are pluripotent stem cells with enormous potential as cell sources for cell-based therapies: hpSCs may have histocompatibilty advantages over human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and derivation of hpSCs does not require viable blastocyst destruction. For translation of all pluripotent stem cell-based therapies, derivation of differentiated cell products that are not contaminated with undifferentiated cells is a major technical roadblock. We report here a novel method to derive high-purity definitive endoderm (DE) from hpSCs, based on reproducing features of the normal human embryonic microenvironment. The method mimics the developmental process of transition through a primitive streak, using a differentiation device that incorporates a three-dimensional extracellular matrix (ECM) combined with a porous membrane. Treatment of undifferentiated hpSCs above the membrane results an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT); thus, responsive cells acquire the ability to migrate through the membrane into the ECM, where they differentiate into DE. Importantly, the resultant DE is highly purified, and is not contaminated by undifferentiated cells, as assessed by OCT4 expression using immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry. The functional properties of the DE are also preserved by the process: DE differentiated in the device can generate a highly enriched population of hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) characterized by expression of hepatic lineage markers, indocyanine green clearance, glycogen storage, cytochrome P450 activity, and engraftment in the liver after transplantation into immunodeficient mice. The method is broadly applicable and we obtained purified DE using hESCs, as well as several hpSC lines. The novel method described here represents a significant step toward the efficient generation of high-purity cells derived from DE, including hepatocytes and pancreatic endocrine cells, for use in regenerative medicine and drug discovery, as well as a platform for studying cell fate specification and behavior during development.

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Keywords: Definitive endoderm (DE); Differentiation; Extracellular matrix (ECM); Hepatocytes; Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs); Human parthenogenetic stem cells (hpSCs)

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: International Stem Cell Corporation, Oceanside, CA, USA

Publication date: 2012-01-01

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  • Cell Transplantation publishes original, peer-reviewed research and review articles on the subject of cell transplantation and its application to human diseases. To ensure high-quality contributions from all areas of transplantation, separate section editors and editorial boards have been established. Articles deal with a wide range of topics including physiological, medical, preclinical, tissue engineering, and device-oriented aspects of transplantation of nervous system, endocrine, growth factor-secreting, bone marrow, epithelial, endothelial, and genetically engineered cells, among others. Basic clinical studies and immunological research papers are also featured. To provide complete coverage of this revolutionary field, Cell Transplantation will report on relevant technological advances, and ethical and regulatory considerations of cell transplants. Cell Transplantation is now an Open Access journal starting with volume 18 in 2009, and therefore there will be an inexpensive publication charge, which is dependent on the number of pages, in addition to the charge for color figures. This will allow work to be disseminated to a wider audience and also entitle the corresponding author to a free PDF, as well as prepublication of an unedited version of the manuscript.

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