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Open Access Myogenic Properties of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived From Three Different Sources

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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) of mammals have been isolated from many tissues and are characterized by their aptitude to differentiate into bone, cartilage, and fat. Differentiation into cells of other lineages like skeletal muscle, tendon/ligament, nervous tissue, and epithelium has been attained with MSCs derived from some tissues. Whether such abilities are shared by MSCs of all tissues is unknown. We therefore compared for three human donors the myogenic properties of MSCs from adipose tissue (AT), bone marrow (BM), and synovial membrane (SM). Our data show that human MSCs derived from the three tissues differ in phenotype, proliferation capacity, and differentiation potential. The division rate of AT-derived MSCs (AT-MSCs) was distinctly higher than that of MSCs from the other two tissue sources. In addition, clear donor-specific differences in the long-term maintenance of MSC proliferation ability were observed. Although similar in their in vitro fusogenic capacity with murine myoblasts, MSCs of the three sources contributed to a different extent to skeletal muscle regeneration in vivo. Transplanting human AT-, BM-, or SM-MSCs previously transduced with a lentiviral vector encoding β-galactosidase into cardiotoxin-damaged tibialis anterior muscles (TAMs) of immunodeficient mice revealed that at 30 days after treatment the frequency of hybrid myofibers was highest in the TAMs treated with AT-MSCs. Our finding of human-specific β-spectrin and dystrophin in hybrid myofibers containing human nuclei argues for myogenic programming of MSCs in regenerating murine skeletal muscle. For the further development of MSC-based treatments of myopathies, AT-MSCs appear to be the best choice in view of their efficient contribution to myoregeneration, their high ex vivo expansion potential, and because their harvesting is less demanding than that of BM- or SM-MSCs.

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Keywords: Cell therapy; Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs); Myogenic differentiation; NOD/SCID mice; Skeletal muscle regeneration

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands

Publication date: 2012-01-01

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  • Cell Transplantation publishes original, peer-reviewed research and review articles on the subject of cell transplantation and its application to human diseases. To ensure high-quality contributions from all areas of transplantation, separate section editors and editorial boards have been established. Articles deal with a wide range of topics including physiological, medical, preclinical, tissue engineering, and device-oriented aspects of transplantation of nervous system, endocrine, growth factor-secreting, bone marrow, epithelial, endothelial, and genetically engineered cells, among others. Basic clinical studies and immunological research papers are also featured. To provide complete coverage of this revolutionary field, Cell Transplantation will report on relevant technological advances, and ethical and regulatory considerations of cell transplants. Cell Transplantation is now an Open Access journal starting with volume 18 in 2009, and therefore there will be an inexpensive publication charge, which is dependent on the number of pages, in addition to the charge for color figures. This will allow work to be disseminated to a wider audience and also entitle the corresponding author to a free PDF, as well as prepublication of an unedited version of the manuscript.

    Cell Transplantation is now being published by SAGE. Please visit their website for the most recent issues.

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