Open Access Functional Evaluation of Primary Renal Cell/Biomaterial Neo-Kidney Augment Prototypes for Renal Tissue Engineering

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Abstract:

Development of a tissue-engineered neo-kidney augment (NKA) requires evaluation of defined, therapeutically relevant cell and cell/biomaterial composites (NKA constructs) for regenerative potential in mammalian kidney. Previous work identified primary renal cell populations that extended survival and improved renal function in a rodent model of chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study extends that work toward the goal of developing NKA by (i) screening in vivo inflammatory and fibrotic responses to acellular biomaterials delivered to healthy rodent renal parenchyma, (ii) evaluating the functionality of renal cell/biomaterial combinations in vitro, (iii) generating NKA constructs by combining therapeutically relevant cell populations with biocompatible biomaterial, and (iv) evaluating in vivo neokidney tissue development in response to NKA constructs delivered to healthy rodent renal parenchyma. Gelatin and hyaluronic acid (HA)-based hydrogels elicited the least inflammatory and fibrotic responses in renal parenchyma relative to polycaprolactone (PCL) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) beads or particles and were associated with neovascularization and cellular infiltration by 4 weeks postimplantation. Renal cell populations seeded onto gelatin or HA-based hydrogels were viable and maintained a tubular epithelial functional phenotype during an in vitro maturation of 3 days as measured by transcriptomic, proteomic, secretomic, and confocal immunofluorescence assays. In vivo delivery of cell-seeded NKA constructs (bioactive renal cells + gelatin hydrogels) to healthy rodent renal parenchyma elicited neokidney tissue formation at 1 week postimplantation. To investigate a potential mechanism by which NKA constructs could impact a disease state, the effect of conditioned media on TGF-β signaling pathways related to tubulo-interstitial fibrosis associated with CKD progression was evaluated. Conditioned medium was observed to attenuate TGF-β-induced epithelial‐mesenchymal transition (EMT) in vitro in a human proximal tubular cell line (HK2).

Keywords: Biomaterials; Kidney; Neo-kidney augment; Regeneration; Renal tissue engineering

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/096368911X566172

Affiliations: Tengion Inc., Winston-Salem, NC, USA

Publication date: November 1, 2011

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  • Cell Transplantation publishes original, peer-reviewed research and review articles on the subject of cell transplantation and its application to human diseases. To ensure high-quality contributions from all areas of transplantation, separate section editors and editorial boards have been established. Articles deal with a wide range of topics including physiological, medical, preclinical, tissue engineering, and device-oriented aspects of transplantation of nervous system, endocrine, growth factor-secreting, bone marrow, epithelial, endothelial, and genetically engineered cells, among others. Basic clinical studies and immunological research papers are also featured. To provide complete coverage of this revolutionary field, Cell Transplantation will report on relevant technological advances, and ethical and regulatory considerations of cell transplants. Cell Transplantation is now an Open Access journal starting with volume 18 in 2009, and therefore there will be an inexpensive publication charge, which is dependent on the number of pages, in addition to the charge for color figures. This will allow work to be disseminated to a wider audience and also entitle the corresponding author to a free PDF, as well as prepublication of an unedited version of the manuscript.

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