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Open Access Characterization of Olfactory Stem Cells

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Abstract:

There is worldwide enthusiasm for the prospect of some kind of cellular transplant therapy for repair of failing organs. The olfactory mucosa of a patient's nose is easily biopsied to provide a ready source of multipotent cells. In this article we address practical issues pertinent to using olfactory neural stem cells for tissue repair. These cells are emerging as potentially most significant candidates for human tissue repair strategies. Previously we have shown that stem cells from olfactory mucosa are multipotent. As well, we have recently published three potential clinical applications. Their expression of dopaminergic markers in vitro and in a Parkinson's rat transplant model has been demonstrated. Their conversion to chondrogenic phenotype in vitro and in vivo has also been described, as has their transplant into a rat model of cardiac infarction. Here we examine in detail the biology of the olfactory neural stem cell using the rat as our animal model cell source. We establish its presence by examining self-renewal capacity and for phenotypic acquisition in inductive circumstances. We determine its frequency within the cell population and show that our culture system selects for this putative stem cell. Our studies demonstrate that adult olfactory stem cells, when transplanted into an environmental niche different from that of their origin, are able to demonstrate multipotency by acquiring the phenotype of the resident cells. We investigate how immediate the instruction need be. We test the hypothesis that olfactory neurospheres contain stem cells whose capacity for differentiation is triggered by signals of the immediate environmental niche. Significantly, of importance to any tissue regeneration endeavor, stem cell numbers were shown to be enriched by our culture methods. This was confirmed whether measured by sphere-forming capacity or differentiation response rate.

Keywords: Cell differentiation; Clonal cell type; Multipotent; Neurosphere; Olfactory; Rat; Stem cell

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/096368911X576009

Affiliations: Eskitis Institute for Cell and Molecular Therapies, National Centre for Adult Stem Cell Research, Griffith University, Nathan, Queensland, Australia

Publication date: 2011-11-01

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  • Cell Transplantation publishes original, peer-reviewed research and review articles on the subject of cell transplantation and its application to human diseases. To ensure high-quality contributions from all areas of transplantation, separate section editors and editorial boards have been established. Articles deal with a wide range of topics including physiological, medical, preclinical, tissue engineering, and device-oriented aspects of transplantation of nervous system, endocrine, growth factor-secreting, bone marrow, epithelial, endothelial, and genetically engineered cells, among others. Basic clinical studies and immunological research papers are also featured. To provide complete coverage of this revolutionary field, Cell Transplantation will report on relevant technological advances, and ethical and regulatory considerations of cell transplants. Cell Transplantation is now an Open Access journal starting with volume 18 in 2009, and therefore there will be an inexpensive publication charge, which is dependent on the number of pages, in addition to the charge for color figures. This will allow work to be disseminated to a wider audience and also entitle the corresponding author to a free PDF, as well as prepublication of an unedited version of the manuscript.
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