The Presence of Apoptotic Bone Marrow Cells Impairs the Efficacy of Cardiac Cell Therapy
Abstract:Injection of autologous bone marrow cells into infarcted myocardium has been proposed to limit the deterioration of cardiac function following myocardial infarction (MI); unfortunately, the beneficial effects observed have been modest. One of the limiting factors is believed to be poor local survival of the injected cells, but the potential impact of apoptosis among the injected cells has yet to be assessed. Therefore, this study aimed to quantify the apoptosis rate in bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMCs) prepared for cardiac therapy, and to analyze their effects in vitro on cardiomyoblast apoptosis and in vivo on cardiac function recovery following MI. Using rabbit BMMCs prepared by Ficoll gradient, apoptotic cells were detected via Annexin V (AnV) staining. The effects of depleting the apoptotic cell population by means of AnV magnetic beads was tested in vitro after coculture with cardiomyoblasts (H9c2 cells) and in vivo after cell injection into the infarcted area. Left ventricular ejection fraction and scar extent were assessed by echography and histology 2 months later. After Ficoll gradient isolation, 37.3% (33.4‐37.9%) of BMMCs were found to be apoptotic (ApoBase BMMCs). AnV depletion decreased the proportion of apoptotic cells to 20% (17.6‐32%) (ApoLow BMMCs). Rabbits treated in vivo with ApoLow BMMCs after MI presented with significantly improved left ventricular ejection fraction [41.4% (41.0‐43.6%) vs. 34.6% (34.6‐35.9%), p = 0.03), reduced scar extent [20.4% (17.9‐24.3%) vs. 25.6% (17.9‐27.9%), p = 0.057], and reduced rate of cardiomyocyte apoptosis compared to those treated with ApoBase BMMCs. H9c2 apoptosis was found to be higher after coculture with ApoBase than with ApoLow BMMCs [25.6% (22.6‐29.6%) vs. 10.1% (6.6‐12.6%), p = 0.03], a result partially reproduced by cocultures with microparticle-rich supernatants from BMMCs. The presence of apoptotic cells among BMMCs impairs the efficacy of cardiac cell therapy after MI, an effect possibly mediated by apoptotic microparticles.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: Université Lille Nord de France, EA 2693, Lille, France
Publication date: July 1, 2011
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