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Open Access Glucose Reduction Prevents Replicative Senescence and Increases Mitochondrial Respiration in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

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Abstract:

The unique self-renewal and multilineage differentiation potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) make them a promising candidate for cell therapy applications. However, during in vitro expansion of MSCs, replicative senescence may occur and will compromise the quality of the expanded cells. Because calorie restriction has been shown to effectively extend the life span of various organisms, the purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of glucose reduction on MSCs and the coordinated changes in energy utilization. It was found that the frequency of cycling cells was significantly increased, while senescence markers such as β-galactosidase activities and p16INK4a expression level were markedly reduced in MSCs under low-glucose culture condition. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis demonstrated the preserved trilineage differentiation potentials of MSCs after low-glucose treatment. Interestingly, the ability of osteogenic lineage commitment was improved, while the ability of adipogenic lineage commitment was delayed in MSCs after glucose reduction. In addition, we observed decreased lactate production, increased electron transport chain complexes expression, and increased oxygen consumption in MSCs after glucose reduction treatment. Increased antioxidant defensive responses were evidenced by increased antioxidant enzymes expression and decreased superoxide production after glucose reduction. Taken together, our findings suggest that MSCs utilize energy more efficiently under restricted glucose treatment and exhibit greater self-renewal and antisenescence abilities, while their differentiation potentials remain unaffected.

Keywords: Glucose reduction; Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs); Mitochondria; Replicative senescence

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/096368910X539100

Affiliations: Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan

Publication date: 2011-06-01

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  • Cell Transplantation publishes original, peer-reviewed research and review articles on the subject of cell transplantation and its application to human diseases. To ensure high-quality contributions from all areas of transplantation, separate section editors and editorial boards have been established. Articles deal with a wide range of topics including physiological, medical, preclinical, tissue engineering, and device-oriented aspects of transplantation of nervous system, endocrine, growth factor-secreting, bone marrow, epithelial, endothelial, and genetically engineered cells, among others. Basic clinical studies and immunological research papers are also featured. To provide complete coverage of this revolutionary field, Cell Transplantation will report on relevant technological advances, and ethical and regulatory considerations of cell transplants. Cell Transplantation is now an Open Access journal starting with volume 18 in 2009, and therefore there will be an inexpensive publication charge, which is dependent on the number of pages, in addition to the charge for color figures. This will allow work to be disseminated to a wider audience and also entitle the corresponding author to a free PDF, as well as prepublication of an unedited version of the manuscript.
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