Markers of Pluripotency and Differentiation in Human Neural Precursor Cells Derived From Embryonic Stem Cells and CNS Tissue
Abstract:Cell transplantation therapies for central nervous system (CNS) deficits such as spinal cord injury (SCI) have been shown to be effective in several animal models. One cell type that has been transplanted is neural precursor cells (NPCs), for which there are several possible sources. We have studied NPCs derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human fetal CNS tissue (hfNPCs), cultured as neurospheres, and the expression of pluripotency and neural genes during neural induction and in vitro differentiation. mRNA for the pluripotency markers Nanog, Oct-4, Gdf3, and DNMT3b were downregulated during neural differentiation of hESCs. mRNA for these markers was found in nonpluripotent hfNPC at higher levels compared to hESC-NPCs. However, Oct-4 protein was found in hESC-NPCs after 8 weeks of culture, but not in hfNPCs. Similarly, SSEA-4 and CD326 were only found in hESC-NPCs. NPCs from both sources differentiated as expected to cells with typical features of neurons and astrocytes. The expressions of neuronal markers in hESC-NPCs were affected by the composition of cell culture medium, while this did not affect hfNPCs. Transplantation of hESC-NPC or hfNPC neurospheres into immunodeficient mouse testis or subcutaneous tissue did not result in tumor formation. In contrast, typical teratomas appeared in all animals after transplantation of hESC-NPCs to injured or noninjured spinal cords of immunodeficient rats. Our data show that transplantation to the subcutaneous tissue or the testes of immunodeficient mice is not a reliable method for evaluation of the tumor risk of remaining pluripotent cells in grafts.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: February 1, 2011
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- Cell Transplantation publishes original, peer-reviewed research and review articles on the subject of cell transplantation and its application to human diseases. To ensure high-quality contributions from all areas of transplantation, separate section editors and editorial boards have been established. Articles deal with a wide range of topics including physiological, medical, preclinical, tissue engineering, and device-oriented aspects of transplantation of nervous system, endocrine, growth factor-secreting, bone marrow, epithelial, endothelial, and genetically engineered cells, among others. Basic clinical studies and immunological research papers are also featured. To provide complete coverage of this revolutionary field, Cell Transplantation will report on relevant technological advances, and ethical and regulatory considerations of cell transplants. Cell Transplantation is now an Open Access journal starting with volume 18 in 2009, and therefore there will be an inexpensive publication charge, which is dependent on the number of pages, in addition to the charge for color figures. This will allow work to be disseminated to a wider audience and also entitle the corresponding author to a free PDF, as well as prepublication of an unedited version of the manuscript.