Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Mechanisms of Immunomodulation and Homing
Abstract:Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation has been explored as a new clinical approach to repair injured tissue. A growing corpus of studies have highlighted two important aspects of MSC therapy: 1) MSCs can modulate T-cell-mediated immunological responses, and (2) systemically administered MSCs home to sites of ischemia or injury. In this review, we describe the known mechanisms of immunomodulation and homing of MSCs. First, we examine the low immunogenicity of MSCs and their antigen presentation capabilities. Next, we discuss the paracrine interactions between MSCs and innate [dendritic cells (DC)] and adaptive immune cells (T lymphocytes) with a focus on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), and toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathways. We transition to outline the steps of activation, rolling/adhesion, and transmigration of MSCs into target tissues during inflammatory or ischemic conditions. These aspects of MSC grafts—immunomodulation and homing—are contextualized to understand a reported side effect of MSC therapy, cancer development.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: Center for Engineering in Medicine and Surgical Services, Massachusetts General Hospital, Shriners Hospitals for Children and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
Publication date: 2010-06-01
More about this publication?
- Cell Transplantation publishes original, peer-reviewed research and review articles on the subject of cell transplantation and its application to human diseases. To ensure high-quality contributions from all areas of transplantation, separate section editors and editorial boards have been established. Articles deal with a wide range of topics including physiological, medical, preclinical, tissue engineering, and device-oriented aspects of transplantation of nervous system, endocrine, growth factor-secreting, bone marrow, epithelial, endothelial, and genetically engineered cells, among others. Basic clinical studies and immunological research papers are also featured. To provide complete coverage of this revolutionary field, Cell Transplantation will report on relevant technological advances, and ethical and regulatory considerations of cell transplants. Cell Transplantation is now an Open Access journal starting with volume 18 in 2009, and therefore there will be an inexpensive publication charge, which is dependent on the number of pages, in addition to the charge for color figures. This will allow work to be disseminated to a wider audience and also entitle the corresponding author to a free PDF, as well as prepublication of an unedited version of the manuscript.