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Open Access Recent Advances in Protein Transduction Technology

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During the past 15 years, a variety of peptides, known as protein transduction domains (PTDs), or cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), have been characterized for their ability to translocate into live cells. There are now numerous examples of biologically active full-length proteins and peptides that have been successfully delivered to cells and tissues, both in vitro and in vivo. One of the principal mechanisms of protein transduction is via electrostatic interactions with the plasma membrane, subsequent penetration into the cells by macropinocytosis, and release into the cytoplasm and nuclei by retrograde transport. Recent reports have also now shown that some of the limitations of protein transduction technology have been overcome. In particular, the use of ubiquitination-resistant proteins has been demonstrated to be a more effective strategy for transduction because the half-life of these molecules is significantly increased. Moreover, the use of the NH2-terminal domain of the influenza virus hemagglutinin-2 subunit (HA2) or photosensitive PTDs has been shown to specifically enhance macropinosome escape. Hence, these and other recent advances in protein transduction technologies have created a number of possibilities for the development of new peptide-based drugs.

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Keywords: Cell penetrating peptide; Endocytosis; Protein transduction domain; Protein transduction technology

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: Baylor All Saints Medical Center, Baylor Research Institute, Fort Worth, TX, USA

Publication date: 2010-06-01

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  • Cell Transplantation publishes original, peer-reviewed research and review articles on the subject of cell transplantation and its application to human diseases. To ensure high-quality contributions from all areas of transplantation, separate section editors and editorial boards have been established. Articles deal with a wide range of topics including physiological, medical, preclinical, tissue engineering, and device-oriented aspects of transplantation of nervous system, endocrine, growth factor-secreting, bone marrow, epithelial, endothelial, and genetically engineered cells, among others. Basic clinical studies and immunological research papers are also featured. To provide complete coverage of this revolutionary field, Cell Transplantation will report on relevant technological advances, and ethical and regulatory considerations of cell transplants. Cell Transplantation is now an Open Access journal starting with volume 18 in 2009, and therefore there will be an inexpensive publication charge, which is dependent on the number of pages, in addition to the charge for color figures. This will allow work to be disseminated to a wider audience and also entitle the corresponding author to a free PDF, as well as prepublication of an unedited version of the manuscript.

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