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Open Access Choice of Immunosuppression Influences Cytomegalovirus DNAemia in Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis) Islet Allograft Recipients

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This retrospective study reviews the results of our experience with the occurrence of CMV DNAemia in islet cell transplanted cynomolgus monkeys subjected to different immunosuppressive protocols, including induction treatment with thymoglobulin (TMG), with a combination of thymoglobulin and fludarabine (FLUD), with cyclophosphamide, or with daclizumab. CMV DNA in the peripheral blood (CMV DNAemia) of 47 monkeys was quantified by real-time PCR on a weekly to biweekly basis. As compared to other immunosuppressive regimens, and in association with greater decreases in WBC, lymphocyte, CD3+CD4+, and CD3+CD8+ lymphocyte counts, frequent CMV DNAemia occurred earlier (within the first month posttransplant), and was of greater severity and duration in recipients of TMG ± FLUD. Treatment of recipients with alternative induction agents that resulted in less dramatic reductions in WBC and lymphocyte counts, however, resulted in occurrence of CMV DNAemia after postoperative day 60. The frequency, average intensity, duration, and area under the curve (AUC) for CMV DNAemia in animals receiving TMG ± FLUD were 75‐100%, 4.02 ± 1.75 copies/ng DNA, 23.0 ± 5.3 days, and 367.0 ± 121.1 days × copies/ng DNA, respectively; corresponding values in animals receiving other treatments (0‐44%, 0.19 ± 0.10 copies/ng DNA, 0.5 ± 0.3 days, and 75.4 ± 40.2 days × copies/ng DNA, respectively) were significantly different. The value of WBC, T and B cells at the nadir of cell depletion greatly affects the occurrence of CMV DNAemia. No animals developed CMV DNAemia within the next 3 weeks when the lowest value of WBC, lymphocyte, CD3+, CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD8+, or CD20+ cells was above 4500, 1800, 300, 200, 150, or 300 cells/μl, respectively. Oral valganciclovir prophylaxis did not completely prevent the appearance of CMV DNAemia.

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Keywords: Cytomegalovirus; Immunosuppression; Infection; Nonhuman primates; Transplantation

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: Diabetes Research Institute, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA

Publication date: 2010-12-01

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  • Cell Transplantation publishes original, peer-reviewed research and review articles on the subject of cell transplantation and its application to human diseases. To ensure high-quality contributions from all areas of transplantation, separate section editors and editorial boards have been established. Articles deal with a wide range of topics including physiological, medical, preclinical, tissue engineering, and device-oriented aspects of transplantation of nervous system, endocrine, growth factor-secreting, bone marrow, epithelial, endothelial, and genetically engineered cells, among others. Basic clinical studies and immunological research papers are also featured. To provide complete coverage of this revolutionary field, Cell Transplantation will report on relevant technological advances, and ethical and regulatory considerations of cell transplants. Cell Transplantation is now an Open Access journal starting with volume 18 in 2009, and therefore there will be an inexpensive publication charge, which is dependent on the number of pages, in addition to the charge for color figures. This will allow work to be disseminated to a wider audience and also entitle the corresponding author to a free PDF, as well as prepublication of an unedited version of the manuscript.

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