The therapeutic mechanism of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSC) for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction is not well understood. Our goal was to get insights into this mechanism by analyzing the survival kinetics of allogeneic and syngeneic cell transplants under different
tissue conditions. Two MSC cell banks, stably and equally expressing the luciferase reporter construct, were developed for these studies and injected directly to the myocardium of Lewis rat recipients under syngeneic or allogeneic transplantation conditions. Cell survival was monitored by
real-time fashion for up to 2 weeks, using optical imaging device (IVIS, Xenogen Corp.). We found that both syngeneic and allogeneic grafts reduced significantly in size during the first week of transplantation, either in the normal or in the late infarcted heart (5 days after MI) and allotransplants
became always smaller than syngeneic grafts during this period. Low dose of cyclosporine A treatment had a benefit on both allo- and syngeneic graft sizes, suggesting that multiple mechanisms play a role in early graft reduction. The MSC characteristic factors IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, and VEGF were
well above the control level in the heart tissue at 4 days after cell injection, suggesting that the peak therapeutic effect of MSC can be expected during the first week of the administration. Although allogeneic cells induced immunoglobulin production, their biological effects (cell survival,
factor productions) are very similar to the syngeneic transplants and therefore they could deliver the same therapeutic effect as the syngeneic cells. Finally, freshly infarcted tissue (30 min) supported better the survival of MSC than late postischemic tissue (5 days) but only “off
the shelf” allogeneic cell transplants fits with this treatment strategy.
Cell Transplantation publishes original, peer-reviewed research and review articles on the subject of cell transplantation and its application to human diseases. To ensure high-quality contributions from all areas of transplantation, separate section editors and editorial boards have been established. Articles deal with a wide range of topics including physiological, medical, preclinical, tissue engineering, and device-oriented aspects of transplantation of nervous system, endocrine, growth factor-secreting, bone marrow, epithelial, endothelial, and genetically engineered cells, among others. Basic clinical studies and immunological research papers are also featured. To provide complete coverage of this revolutionary field, Cell Transplantation will report on relevant technological advances, and ethical and regulatory considerations of cell transplants. Cell Transplantation is now an Open Access journal starting with volume 18 in 2009, and therefore there will be an inexpensive publication charge, which is dependent on the number of pages, in addition to the charge for color figures. This will allow work to be disseminated to a wider audience and also entitle the corresponding author to a free PDF, as well as prepublication of an unedited version of the manuscript.