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Open Access Immune Tolerance Induction by Integrating Innate and Adaptive Immune Regulators

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A diversity of immune tolerance mechanisms have evolved to protect normal tissues from immune damage. Immune regulatory cells are critical contributors to peripheral tolerance. These regulatory cells, exemplified by the CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells and a recently identified population named myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), regulate immune responses and limiting immune-mediated pathology. In a chronic inflammatory setting, such as allograft-directed immunity, there may be a dynamic “cross-talk” between the innate and adaptive immunomodulatory mechanisms for an integrated control of immune damage. CTLA4-B7-based interaction between the two branches may function as a molecular “bridge” to facilitate such “cross-talk.” Understanding the interplays among Treg cells, innate suppressors, and pathogenic effector T (Teff) cells will be critical in the future to assist in the development of therapeutic strategies to enhance and synergize physiological immunosuppressive elements in the innate and adaptive immune system. Successful development of localized strategies of regulatory cell therapies could circumvent the requirement for very high number of cells and decrease the risks associated with systemic immunosuppression. To realize the potential of innate and adaptive immune regulators for the still elusive goal of immune tolerance induction, adoptive cell therapies may also need to be coupled with agents enhancing endogenous tolerance mechanisms.

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Keywords: Autoimmunity; CTLA4; Immune tolerance; Immunosuppression; Regulatory cells; Transplant

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA

Publication date: 2010-03-01

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  • Cell Transplantation publishes original, peer-reviewed research and review articles on the subject of cell transplantation and its application to human diseases. To ensure high-quality contributions from all areas of transplantation, separate section editors and editorial boards have been established. Articles deal with a wide range of topics including physiological, medical, preclinical, tissue engineering, and device-oriented aspects of transplantation of nervous system, endocrine, growth factor-secreting, bone marrow, epithelial, endothelial, and genetically engineered cells, among others. Basic clinical studies and immunological research papers are also featured. To provide complete coverage of this revolutionary field, Cell Transplantation will report on relevant technological advances, and ethical and regulatory considerations of cell transplants. Cell Transplantation is now an Open Access journal starting with volume 18 in 2009, and therefore there will be an inexpensive publication charge, which is dependent on the number of pages, in addition to the charge for color figures. This will allow work to be disseminated to a wider audience and also entitle the corresponding author to a free PDF, as well as prepublication of an unedited version of the manuscript.

    Cell Transplantation is now being published by SAGE. Please visit their website for the most recent issues.

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