Differential Ability of Somatic Stem Cells
Abstract:Somatic stem cells can be isolated from a variety of sources. Although some studies have suggested that somatic stem cells may represent a cell population that is very similar to embryonic stem (ES) cells, it remains unclear whether somatic stem cells retain the potential to differentiate into any cell type derived from the three germ layers. In this study, we investigated the transdifferentiation potential of somatic stem cells using adipose tissue-derived stem/progenitor cells (ASCs; mesodermal stem cells) and pancreatic stem cells (endodermal stem cells). Previous reports from other groups describe the protocol that has been used to differentiate ASCs or mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in bone marrow into insulin-producing cells. Induction 1: ASCs were cultured for 3 days in ultra-low attachment plates under serum-free conditions. Induction 2: ASCs were cultured for 24 h with L-DMEM, and reinduced with serum-free H-DMEM for another 10 h. Unlike previous reports, we did not get ASCs to express any pancreas-specific genes, including insulin-1 or insulin-2. Pancreatic stem cells were induced to differentiate into adipo/osteogenic by the following protocols. Induction protocol 1: ACSs were cultured for 7 days with medium containing indometacin, dexamethasone, hydrocortisone, and insulin for adipogenic differentiation. Induction protocol 2: The cells were cultured for 7 days with medium containing dexamethasone, ascorbate-2-phosphate, and -glycerophosphate for osteogenic differentiation. Although these approaches have been widely used for adipo/osteogenic differentiation from MSCs, adipo/osteogenic differentiation from pancreatic stem cells was not observed. These data suggest that it is not easy for somatic stem cells to transdifferentiate into other germ cell types, at least, under these conditions.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: Department of Advanced Medicine in Biotechnology and Robotics, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550, Japan
Publication date: May 1, 2009
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