Recent Advances of Dendritic Cells (DCs)-Based Immunotherapy for Malignant Gliomas
Abstract:Immunotherapy is a new light of hope for the treatment of malignant gliomas. The brain is no longer believed to be an immunologically privileged organ. The major advantage of immunotherapy is the tumor-specific cytotoxic effect on the tumor cells with minimal side effects. Autologous dendritic cells (DCs)-based immunotherapy is a promising and feasible method. DCs are the most potent antigen-presenting cells (APCs). DCs prime T lymphocytes by epitopic major histocompatibility (MHC) class I and II for CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and CD4+ T helper cells, respectively. From the tissue specimen examination after DCs-based immunotherapy, CD8+ CTLs have replaced T regulatory cells (Tregs) as the major dominant tissue infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). CD8+ CTLs play a key role in the tumor response, which may also be effective against cancer stem cells. DCs themselves also produce many cytokines including interferon- and interleukin (IL-2) to kill the tumor cells. From the preliminary better outcomes in the literature for malignant gliomas, DC-based immunotherapy may improve tumor response by increasing the survival rate and time. It is recommended that DC-based immunotherapy is applied as soon as possible with conjunctive radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Malignant gliomas have heterogeneity of tissue-associated antigens (TAAs). To find universal common antigens through different kinds of tumor culture may be the essential issue for tumor vaccine development in the future.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: Department of Neurosurgery, Center for Neuropsychiatric, Cell/Gene Therapy Research Laboratory, China Medical University & Hospital, Taiwan, Republic of China; Graduate Institute of Immunology, China Medical University, Taiwan, Republic of China
Publication date: September 1, 2009
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