Amniotic Mesenchymal Tissue Cells Inhibit Dendritic Cell Differentiation of Peripheral Blood and Amnion Resident Monocytes
Abstract:Cells derived from the amniotic membranes of human term placenta have drawn much interest for their characteristics of multipotency and low immunogenicity, supporting a variety of possible clinical applications in the field of cell transplantation and regenerative medicine. We have previously shown that cells derived from the mesenchymal region of human amnion (AMTC) can strongly inhibit T-lymphocyte proliferation. In this study, we demonstrate that AMTC can block differentiation and maturation of monocytes into dendritic cells (DC), preventing the expression of the DC marker CD1a and reducing the expression of HLA-DR, CD80, and CD83. The monocyte maturation block resulted in impaired allostimulatory ability of these cells on allogeneic T cells. In attempting to define the mechanisms responsible for these findings, we have observed that the presence of AMTC in differentiating DC cultures results in the arrest of the cells to the G0 phase and abolishes the production of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, CXCL10, CXCL9, and CCL5. Finally, we also demonstrate that the monocytic cells present in the amniotic mesenchymal region fail to differentiate toward the DC lineage. Taken together, our data suggest that the mechanisms by which AMTC exert immumodulatory effects do not only relate directly to T cells, but also include inhibition of the generation and maturation of antigen-presenting cells. In this context, AMTC represent a very attractive source of multipotent allogeneic cells that promise to be remarkably valuable for cell transplantation approaches, not only due to their low immunogenicity, but also because of the added potential of modulating immune responses, which could be fundamental both for controlling graft rejection after transplantation and also for controlling diseases characterized by inflammatory processes.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: Centro di Ricerca E. Menni, Fondazione Poliambulanza Istituto Ospedaliero, Brescia, Italy
Publication date: August 1, 2009
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