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Promotion of Hydroxyapatite-Associated, Stem Cell-Based Bone Regeneration by CCN2

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Multiple roles have been already recognized for CCN2 in cartilage development and regeneration. However, the effects of CCN2 on bone regeneration remain to be elucidated. In this study, the utility of CCN2 on bone regeneration was examined in vitro and in vivo in combination with hydroxyapatite (HAp) as a scaffold. Human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) were isolated from human iliac bone marrow aspirates of healthy donors and expanded, and the effects of CCN2 on their proliferation and migration were examined in vitro. The proliferation of hBMSCs on a plastic or HAp plate was significantly enhanced by CCN2. Moreover, the migration of hBMSCs also dramatically increased by CCN2. Interestingly, a C-terminal signal modular fragment of CCN2 (CT-module) also enhanced the cell proliferation and migration as efficiently as the full-length CCN2. Next, in order to estimate the effect of CCN2 on the migration and survival of hBMSCs and bone formation inside the HAp scaffold in vivo, two experiments were performed. First, the porous HAp carrier was cultured with hBMSCs for a week, and the cell–scaffold hybrid was transplanted with or without CCN2 subcutaneously into immunocompromised mice. CCN2 accelerated the hBMSC-like cell migration and survival inside the porous HAp within 4 weeks after transplantation. Second, the porous HAp carrier with or without CCN2 was directly implanted into bone defects within a rabbit mandible, and bone regeneration inside was evaluated. As a result, CCN2 efficiently induced the cell invasion and bone formation inside the porous HAp scaffold. These findings suggest that CCN2 and its CT-module fragment could be useful for regeneration and reconstruction of large-scale bone defects.

Keywords: Bone marrow stromal cell; Bone regeneration; CCN2/connective tissue growth factor; Hydroxyapatite; Mesenchymal stem cell

Document Type: Research Article


Affiliations: 1: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Dentistry, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Japan 2: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Rehabilitation, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Japan 3: Department of Biomaterials, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Japan

Publication date: January 1, 2008

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  • Cell Transplantation publishes original, peer-reviewed research and review articles on the subject of cell transplantation and its application to human diseases. To ensure high-quality contributions from all areas of transplantation, separate section editors and editorial boards have been established. Articles deal with a wide range of topics including physiological, medical, preclinical, tissue engineering, and device-oriented aspects of transplantation of nervous system, endocrine, growth factor-secreting, bone marrow, epithelial, endothelial, and genetically engineered cells, among others. Basic clinical studies and immunological research papers are also featured. To provide complete coverage of this revolutionary field, Cell Transplantation will report on relevant technological advances, and ethical and regulatory considerations of cell transplants. Cell Transplantation is now an Open Access journal starting with volume 18 in 2009, and therefore there will be an inexpensive publication charge, which is dependent on the number of pages, in addition to the charge for color figures. This will allow work to be disseminated to a wider audience and also entitle the corresponding author to a free PDF, as well as prepublication of an unedited version of the manuscript.

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