Marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent progenitor cells and reported to be immunoprivileged as well as immunosuppressive. Hence, MSCs might be ideal candidates for allogeneic transplantation to induce regeneration of damaged tissues/organs. To confirm the differentiation capability of allogeneic MSCs in vivo is important for the acceleration of regenerative medicine. Consequently, we have established an in vivo rat model using subcutaneous implantation of a hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramic/MSCs composite. Osteogenic differentiation was used as an indicator of differentiation. When syngeneic MSCs were implanted, MSCs showed osteogenic differentiation as evidenced by new bone formation as well as high alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. When allogeneic MSCs were implanted, none of the allografts survived or showed osteogenic differentiation. However, when the recipient rats were treated with FK506 immunosuppressant, allogeneic MSCs showed osteogenic differentiation. Although this finding might not be adequate for the acceleration of regenerative medicine, these results did confirm that MSCs are not intrinsically immunoprivileged but that under appropriate immunosuppressant treatment, allogeneic MSCs can survive and show differentiation capability in vivo.
Cell Transplantation publishes original, peer-reviewed research and review articles on the subject of cell transplantation and its application to human diseases. To ensure high-quality contributions from all areas of transplantation, separate section editors and editorial boards have been established. Articles deal with a wide range of topics including physiological, medical, preclinical, tissue engineering, and device-oriented aspects of transplantation of nervous system, endocrine, growth factor-secreting, bone marrow, epithelial, endothelial, and genetically engineered cells, among others. Basic clinical studies and immunological research papers are also featured. To provide complete coverage of this revolutionary field, Cell Transplantation will report on relevant technological advances, and ethical and regulatory considerations of cell transplants. Cell Transplantation is now an Open Access journal starting with volume 18 in 2009, and therefore there will be an inexpensive publication charge, which is dependent on the number of pages, in addition to the charge for color figures. This will allow work to be disseminated to a wider audience and also entitle the corresponding author to a free PDF, as well as prepublication of an unedited version of the manuscript.