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Combination of Anti-CD4 With Anti-LFA-1 and Anti-CD154 Monoclonal Antibodies Promotes Long-Term Survival and Function of Neonatal Porcine Islet Xenografts in Spontaneously Diabetic NOD Mice

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Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is caused by the autoimmune destruction of pancreatic islet -cells, which are required for the production of insulin. Islet transplantation has been shown to be an effective treatment option for T1DM; however, the current shortage of human islet donors limits the application of this treatment to patients with brittle T1DM. Xenotransplantation of pig islets is a potential solution to the shortage of human donor islets provided xenograft rejection is prevented. We demonstrated that a short-term administration of a combination of anti-LFA-1 and anti-CD154 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) was highly effective in preventing rejection of neonatal porcine islet (NPI) xenografts in non-autoimmune-prone B6 mice. However, the efficacy of this therapy in preventing rejection of NPI xenografts in autoimmune-prone nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice is not known. Given that the current application of islet transplantation is for the treatment of T1DM, we set out to determine whether a combination of anti-LFA-1 and anti-CD154 mAbs could promote long-term survival of NPI xenografts in NOD mice. Short-term administration of a combination of anti-LFA-1 and anti-CD154 mAbs, which we found highly effective in preventing rejection of NPI xenografts in B6 mice, failed to promote long-term survival of NPI xenografts in NOD mice. However, addition of anti-CD4 mAb to short-term treatment of a combination of anti-LFA-1 and anti-CD154 mAbs resulted in xenograft function in 9/12 animals and long-term graft (>100 days) survival in 2/12 mice. Immunohistochemical analysis of islet grafts from these mice identified numerous insulin-producing -cells. Moreover, the anti-porcine antibody as well as autoreactive antibody responses in these mice was reduced similar to those observed in naive nontransplanted mice. These data demonstrate that simultaneous targeting of LFA-1, CD154, and CD4 molecules can be effective in inducing long-term islet xenograft survival and function in autoimmune-prone NOD mice.

Keywords: CD154; CD4; LFA-1; Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs); Neonatal porcine islets (NPI); Nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse; Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM)

Document Type: Research Article


Affiliations: 1: Surgical-Medical Research Institute, Department of Surgery, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2N8 2: Barbara Davis Center for Childhood Diabetes, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Aurora, CO 80010, USA

Publication date: August 1, 2007

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  • Cell Transplantation publishes original, peer-reviewed research and review articles on the subject of cell transplantation and its application to human diseases. To ensure high-quality contributions from all areas of transplantation, separate section editors and editorial boards have been established. Articles deal with a wide range of topics including physiological, medical, preclinical, tissue engineering, and device-oriented aspects of transplantation of nervous system, endocrine, growth factor-secreting, bone marrow, epithelial, endothelial, and genetically engineered cells, among others. Basic clinical studies and immunological research papers are also featured. To provide complete coverage of this revolutionary field, Cell Transplantation will report on relevant technological advances, and ethical and regulatory considerations of cell transplants. Cell Transplantation is now an Open Access journal starting with volume 18 in 2009, and therefore there will be an inexpensive publication charge, which is dependent on the number of pages, in addition to the charge for color figures. This will allow work to be disseminated to a wider audience and also entitle the corresponding author to a free PDF, as well as prepublication of an unedited version of the manuscript.

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