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Heparan Sulfate Mediates Neuroprotection From Degeneration in Experimental Glutaric Aciduria

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Abstract:

Glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA1) is a childhood metabolic disorder associated with crises that lead to striatal necrosis. Although the disorder can be controlled with diet, there is no current treatment to ameliorate the neurodegeneration following a metabolic crisis. We hypothesized that heparan sulfate (HS) administration would stimulate neural stem cell proliferation by dimerizing with FGF-2 and binding to the FGF-2 receptor on neural stem cells, thus enhancing the number of newly generated neurons to repair damage following a metabolic crisis. In addition, FGF-2 is known to exert neuroprotective effects independent of neurogenesis, so HS may also have neuroprotective activities. To test these hypotheses, ibotenic acid was injected into the striatum of adult mice, mimicking the metabolic crisis and damage caused by glutaric aciduria. Daily doses of HS and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) or BrdU alone were administered starting 1 day after the ibotenic acid lesion. BrdU was used to label dividing cells. Fluorescent immunohistochemistry was used to quantify the lesion size and evaluate the phenotype of BrdU-positive cells. Intrastriatal administration of ibotenic acid resulted in a substantial striatal lesion that occupied 18.5% of the ipsilateral brain hemisphere. In contrast, animals treated with HS exhibited a lesion volume representing <1% of the ipsilateral brain hemisphere (ANOVA; p < 0.0001). Increased neurogenesis, however, was not observed in this group. These results suggest that HS administration 2 days after a “metabolic crisis” can ameliorate brain injury in an animal model of GA1. The neuroprotective mechanisms of HS, however, remain to be elucidated but may exert their actions indirectly through binding with FGF-2.

Keywords: Bromodeoxyuridine; FGF2; Glutaric aciduria; Heparan sulfate; Striatal necrosis

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/000000007783464786

Affiliations: 1: Department of Neurosurgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA 2: Department of Neurosurgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA, Graduate Program in Neuroscience, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA 3: Department of Neurosurgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA, Graduate Program in Neuroscience, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA, Stem Cell Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA

Publication date: March 1, 2007

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  • Cell Transplantation publishes original, peer-reviewed research and review articles on the subject of cell transplantation and its application to human diseases. To ensure high-quality contributions from all areas of transplantation, separate section editors and editorial boards have been established. Articles deal with a wide range of topics including physiological, medical, preclinical, tissue engineering, and device-oriented aspects of transplantation of nervous system, endocrine, growth factor-secreting, bone marrow, epithelial, endothelial, and genetically engineered cells, among others. Basic clinical studies and immunological research papers are also featured. To provide complete coverage of this revolutionary field, Cell Transplantation will report on relevant technological advances, and ethical and regulatory considerations of cell transplants. Cell Transplantation is now an Open Access journal starting with volume 18 in 2009, and therefore there will be an inexpensive publication charge, which is dependent on the number of pages, in addition to the charge for color figures. This will allow work to be disseminated to a wider audience and also entitle the corresponding author to a free PDF, as well as prepublication of an unedited version of the manuscript.

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