Human stem cells, progenitor cells, and cell lines have been derived from embryonic, fetal, and adult sources in the search for graft tissue suitable for the treatment of CNS disorders. An increasing number of experimental studies have shown that grafts from several sources survive, differentiate into distinct cell types, and exert positive functional effects in experimental animal models, but little attention has been given to developing cells under conditions of good manufacturing practice (GMP) that can be scaled up for mass treatment. The capacity for continued division of stem cells in culture offers the opportunity to expand their production to meet the widespread clinical demands posed by neurodegenerative diseases. However, maintaining stem cell division in culture long term, while ensuring differentiation after transplantation, requires genetic and/or oncogenetic manipulations, which may affect the genetic stability and in vivo survival of cells. This review outlines the stages, selection criteria, problems, and ultimately the successes arising in the development of conditionally immortal clinical grade stem cell lines, which divide in vitro, differentiate in vivo, and exert positive functional effects. These processes are specifically exemplified by the murine MHP36 cell line, conditionally immortalized by a temperature-sensitive mutant of the SV40 large T antigen, and cell lines transfected with the c-myc protein fused with a mutated estrogen receptor (c-mycERTAM), regulated by a tamoxifen metabolite, but the issues raised are common to all routes for the development of effective clinical grade cells.
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Document Type: Research Article
Department of Psychology, Institute of Psychiatry, Kings College, London, UK, ReNeuron Ltd., Guildford, Surrey, UK
ReNeuron Ltd., Guildford, Surrey, UK
Department of Psychology, Institute of Psychiatry, Kings College, London, UK
Publication date: 2007-02-01
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Cell Transplantation publishes original, peer-reviewed research and review articles on the subject of cell transplantation and its application to human diseases. To ensure high-quality contributions from all areas of transplantation, separate section editors and editorial boards have been established. Articles deal with a wide range of topics including physiological, medical, preclinical, tissue engineering, and device-oriented aspects of transplantation of nervous system, endocrine, growth factor-secreting, bone marrow, epithelial, endothelial, and genetically engineered cells, among others. Basic clinical studies and immunological research papers are also featured. To provide complete coverage of this revolutionary field, Cell Transplantation will report on relevant technological advances, and ethical and regulatory considerations of cell transplants. Cell Transplantation is now an Open Access journal starting with volume 18 in 2009, and therefore there will be an inexpensive publication charge, which is dependent on the number of pages, in addition to the charge for color figures. This will allow work to be disseminated to a wider audience and also entitle the corresponding author to a free PDF, as well as prepublication of an unedited version of the manuscript.
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