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Cell Therapy for Diabetes Mellitus

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Abstract:

The number of diabetic patients in the world is increasing in recent years and the prevention of diabetes mellitus is therefore one of the urgent medical issues. Exogenous insulin is used for the control of blood glucose in diabetic patients; however, hypoglycemic episodes are unavoidable. Over the last several decades, islet transplantation has been developed as a promising method to achieve strict control of blood glucose and a potential cure for type 1 diabetes. However, due to the shortage of donor pancreata, alternative sources of islets have been sought through the generation of beta cells from stem cells, use of porcine islets, and beta cell expansion with growth factors. However, differentiation and expansion of embryonic and pancreatic stem cells and expansion of differentiated beta cells in vitro is limited. Expansion of primary beta cells by growth factors is also hampered by the senescence of the cells. Thus, we focused on establishing a human pancreatic beta cell line that is functionally equivalent to primary beta cells and can yield large amounts of cells for transplantation. Using Cre/loxP-based reversible immortalization, we constructed a reversibly immortalized pancreatic beta cell clone (NAKT-15). The cells may overcome the limitation of primary pancreatic beta cells for transplantation to control type 1 diabetes. In order to avoid the use of immunosuppressive agents, we are currently engaged in developing an implantable bag-type bioartificial pancreas. In this article, I discuss the hurdles of the current therapy for diabetes and introduce the possible future treatment of diabetes.

Keywords: Bioartificial pancreas; Diabetes; Immortalized pancreatic beta cells; Islet transplantation

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/000000006783981396

Affiliations: Department of Surgery, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry, Okayama 700-8558, Japan

Publication date: 2006-10-01

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  • Cell Transplantation publishes original, peer-reviewed research and review articles on the subject of cell transplantation and its application to human diseases. To ensure high-quality contributions from all areas of transplantation, separate section editors and editorial boards have been established. Articles deal with a wide range of topics including physiological, medical, preclinical, tissue engineering, and device-oriented aspects of transplantation of nervous system, endocrine, growth factor-secreting, bone marrow, epithelial, endothelial, and genetically engineered cells, among others. Basic clinical studies and immunological research papers are also featured. To provide complete coverage of this revolutionary field, Cell Transplantation will report on relevant technological advances, and ethical and regulatory considerations of cell transplants. Cell Transplantation is now an Open Access journal starting with volume 18 in 2009, and therefore there will be an inexpensive publication charge, which is dependent on the number of pages, in addition to the charge for color figures. This will allow work to be disseminated to a wider audience and also entitle the corresponding author to a free PDF, as well as prepublication of an unedited version of the manuscript.
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