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Chemokines and Their Receptors in Islet Allograft Rejection and as Targets for Tolerance Induction

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Graft rejection is a major barrier to successful outcome of transplantation surgery. Islet transplantation introduces insulin secreting tissue into type 1 diabetes mellitus recipients, relieving patients from exogenous insulin injection. However, insulitis of grafted tissue and allograft rejection prevent long-term insulin independence. Leukocyte trafficking is necessary for the launch of successful immune responses to pathogen or allograft. Chemokines, small chemotactic cytokines, direct the migration of leukocytes through their interaction with chemokine receptors found on cell surfaces of immune cells. Unique receptor expression of leukocytes, and the specificity of chemokine secretion during various states of immune response, suggest that the extracellular chemokine milieu specifically homes certain leukocyte subsets. Thus, only those leukocytes required for the current immune task are attracted to the inflammatory site. Chemokine blockade, using antagonists and monoclonal antibodies directed against chemokine receptors, is an emerging and specific immunosuppressive strategy. Importantly, chemokine blockade may potentiate tolerance induction regimens to be used following transplantation surgery, and prevent the need for life-long immunosuppression of islet transplant recipients. Here, the role for chemokine blockade in islet transplant rejection and tolerance is reviewed.
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Keywords: Allograft; Chemokine; Islet; Review; Tolerance; Transplant

Document Type: Review Article

Affiliations: 1: Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton AB, Canada 2: Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Joseph Stokes, Jr. Research Institute and Biesecker Pediatric Liver Center, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA

Publication date: 2006-04-01

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  • Cell Transplantation publishes original, peer-reviewed research and review articles on the subject of cell transplantation and its application to human diseases. To ensure high-quality contributions from all areas of transplantation, separate section editors and editorial boards have been established. Articles deal with a wide range of topics including physiological, medical, preclinical, tissue engineering, and device-oriented aspects of transplantation of nervous system, endocrine, growth factor-secreting, bone marrow, epithelial, endothelial, and genetically engineered cells, among others. Basic clinical studies and immunological research papers are also featured. To provide complete coverage of this revolutionary field, Cell Transplantation will report on relevant technological advances, and ethical and regulatory considerations of cell transplants. Cell Transplantation is now an Open Access journal starting with volume 18 in 2009, and therefore there will be an inexpensive publication charge, which is dependent on the number of pages, in addition to the charge for color figures. This will allow work to be disseminated to a wider audience and also entitle the corresponding author to a free PDF, as well as prepublication of an unedited version of the manuscript.

    Cell Transplantation is now being published by SAGE. Please visit their website for the most recent issues.

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