Pig-to-Nonhuman Primate Islet Xenotransplantation: A Review of Current Problems

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Abstract:

Islet allotransplantation has been shown to have potential as a treatment for type 1 diabetic patients. Xenotransplantation, using the pig as a donor, offers the possibility of an unlimited number of islets. This comprehensive review focuses on experience obtained in pig-to-nonhuman primate models, particularly with regard to the different types of islets (fetal, neonatal, adult) and isolation procedures used, and the methods to determine islet viability. The advantages and disadvantages of the methods to induce diabetes (pancreatectomy, streptozotocin) are discussed. Experience in pig-to-nonhuman primate islet transplantation studies is reviewed, including discussion of the possible mechanisms of rejection and the immunosuppressive regimens used. The research carried out to date has led to workable animal models to study islet xenotransplantation, but several questions regarding methodology remain unanswered, and details of these practicalities require to be adequately addressed. The encouraging porcine islet survival reported recently provides an indicator for future immunosuppressive regimens.

Keywords: Diabetes mellitus; Nonhuman primates; Porcine islets; Streptozotocin; Xenotransplantation

Document Type: Review Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/000000006783982052

Affiliations: 1: University Hospital Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland 2: Division of Immunogenetics, Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA 3: Starzl Transplantation Institute, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA

Publication date: February 1, 2006

More about this publication?
  • Cell Transplantation publishes original, peer-reviewed research and review articles on the subject of cell transplantation and its application to human diseases. To ensure high-quality contributions from all areas of transplantation, separate section editors and editorial boards have been established. Articles deal with a wide range of topics including physiological, medical, preclinical, tissue engineering, and device-oriented aspects of transplantation of nervous system, endocrine, growth factor-secreting, bone marrow, epithelial, endothelial, and genetically engineered cells, among others. Basic clinical studies and immunological research papers are also featured. To provide complete coverage of this revolutionary field, Cell Transplantation will report on relevant technological advances, and ethical and regulatory considerations of cell transplants. Cell Transplantation is now an Open Access journal starting with volume 18 in 2009, and therefore there will be an inexpensive publication charge, which is dependent on the number of pages, in addition to the charge for color figures. This will allow work to be disseminated to a wider audience and also entitle the corresponding author to a free PDF, as well as prepublication of an unedited version of the manuscript.
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