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Development of a Hydroxyapatite/Collagen Nanocomposite as a Medical Device

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Abstract:

The effect of cross-linking of a hydroxyapatite/collagen (HA/Col) nanocomposite, in which HA nanocrystals and collagen fibers are aligned like natural bone by a self-organization mechanism between HA and collagen in vitro, on mechanical properties was examined. The influence of degree of cross-linking, as well as rhBMP-2 preadsorption to the composite on the substitution pattern and rate with bone, was examined. In Experiment 1, anterior fusion was carried out at the C3–C4 vertebrae on 10 dogs and they were implanted as follows: without cross-linking and without adsorbed rhBMP-2 (three dogs), with cross-linking and without adsorbed rhBMP-2 (three dogs), without cross-linking and with adsorbed rhBMP-2 (two dogs), and with cross-linking and adsorbed rhBMP-2 (two dogs). Implants were removed from each dog for histology determinations after 12, 16, and 24 weeks in the non-rhBMP-treated groups, and after 16 and 24 weeks in the rhBMP-treated groups. In Experiment 2, the HA/Col composites with cross-linking and both with and without rhBMP-2 pretreatment were implanted into a bone defect of 20 mm made in the central part of tibiae in dogs (N = 3 in each group). As a control, bone defects of 20 mm remained without implantation (N = 3). The dogs were allowed to walk using an Ilizarov extra skeletal fixator. The implants were removed after 12, 16, and 24 weeks from one dog in each group. The cross-linking of the HA/Col composite was effective in controlling both the mechanical strength and bioresorbability. A “self-organization process” on the HA/Col implant surface resulted in the formation of bone remodeling units in and around the implant. Radiographic and histological findings suggest that a combined treatment of cross-linking of the HA/Col composite with preadsorption of rhBMP-2 molecules may be a very suitable replacement of existing ceramic systems in the anterior fusion of the cervical spine, as well as inlay grafting of bone defects in weight-bearing sites.

Keywords: Bone remodeling unit; Hydroxyapatite/type I collagen (HA/Col) composite; Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2); Self-organization

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/000000004783983774

Affiliations: 1: *Division of Molecular Tissue Engineering, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Yushima 1-5-45, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8519, Japan 2: †Biomaterials Center, National Institute for Materials Science, Namiki 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044, Japan 3: ‡Department of Biomechanical Engineering, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Yushima 1-5-45, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8519, Japan 4: ┬žOrthopaedic and Spinal Surgery, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Yushima 1-5-45, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8519, Japan

Publication date: January 1, 2004

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  • Cell Transplantation publishes original, peer-reviewed research and review articles on the subject of cell transplantation and its application to human diseases. To ensure high-quality contributions from all areas of transplantation, separate section editors and editorial boards have been established. Articles deal with a wide range of topics including physiological, medical, preclinical, tissue engineering, and device-oriented aspects of transplantation of nervous system, endocrine, growth factor-secreting, bone marrow, epithelial, endothelial, and genetically engineered cells, among others. Basic clinical studies and immunological research papers are also featured. To provide complete coverage of this revolutionary field, Cell Transplantation will report on relevant technological advances, and ethical and regulatory considerations of cell transplants. Cell Transplantation is now an Open Access journal starting with volume 18 in 2009, and therefore there will be an inexpensive publication charge, which is dependent on the number of pages, in addition to the charge for color figures. This will allow work to be disseminated to a wider audience and also entitle the corresponding author to a free PDF, as well as prepublication of an unedited version of the manuscript.
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