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Therapeutic Angiogenesis by Autologous Bone Marrow Cell Implantation for Refractory Chronic Peripheral Arterial Disease Using Assessment of Neovascularization by 99mTc-Tetrofosmin (TF) Perfusion Scintigraphy

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We investigated efficacy and safety of implantation of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells plus platelets, including endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), for recovering refractory chronic peripheral arterial disease (PAD) using visual and quantitative analyses by 99mTc-tetrofosmin (TF) perfusion scintigraphy, and also investigated various quantitative assessments objectively. We performed 12 consecutive cases and 19 limbs and hands with severe chronic PAD that were almost Fontaine class IV (11/12 cases, about 92%) in this trial. This treatment was very effective in relieving severe pain of PAD, especially for Buerger’s disease. We used a visual analog scale (VAS) for measurement of pain level. The maximum pain level before implantation was 66.5 ± 5.0 mm, and it decreased to 12.1 ± 2.2 mm after implantation (p < 0.001). Rest pain in legs and fingers was resolved in 11 cases (11/12 cases, 92%). All patients could measure pain-free walking time on a treadmill, which improved remarkably (140 ± 53 s before implantation vs. 451 ± 74 s after implantation, p = 0.034). Resting ankle brachial pressure index (ABI) in legs implanted with bone marrow mononuclear cells was also improved (0.65 ± 0.08 before implantation vs. 0.73 ± 0.07 after implantation, p = 0.055). According to 99mTc-TF perfusion scintigraphy, the proximal area (region from knee to ankle) was 1.32 ± 0.10 before implantation versus 1.56 ± 0.11 after implantation (p = 0.007). 99mTc-TF perfusion scintigraphy in the distal area (region from ankle to end of toes, or from wrist to end of fingers) was 0.79 ± 0.06 before implantation versus 0.83 ± 0.06 after implantation (p = 0.29). Ischemic legs and hands that were injected showed increased perfusion blood flow. 99mTc-TF perfusion scintigraphy was effective to estimate visual and quantitative analysis of collateral vessels in neovascularization. We were successful with this new treatment for the most severe, chronic PAD that was not curable by any of the current treatments. Thus, this therapeutic angiogenesis could be a new strategy for saving severe ischemic limbs and hands.

Keywords: 99mTc-Tetrofosmin (TF) perfusion scintigraphy; Bone marrow cell; Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs); Peripheral arterial disease; Therapeutic angiogenesis

Document Type: Research Article


Affiliations: 1: *First Department of Internal Medicine, Nippon Medical School, 1-1-5 Sendagi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8603, Japan 2: †Department of Plastic Surgery, Nippon Medical School, 1-1-5 Sendagi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8603, Japan 3: ‡Department of Radiology, Nippon Medical School, 1-1-5 Sendagi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8603, Japan

Publication date: January 1, 2004

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  • Cell Transplantation publishes original, peer-reviewed research and review articles on the subject of cell transplantation and its application to human diseases. To ensure high-quality contributions from all areas of transplantation, separate section editors and editorial boards have been established. Articles deal with a wide range of topics including physiological, medical, preclinical, tissue engineering, and device-oriented aspects of transplantation of nervous system, endocrine, growth factor-secreting, bone marrow, epithelial, endothelial, and genetically engineered cells, among others. Basic clinical studies and immunological research papers are also featured. To provide complete coverage of this revolutionary field, Cell Transplantation will report on relevant technological advances, and ethical and regulatory considerations of cell transplants. Cell Transplantation is now an Open Access journal starting with volume 18 in 2009, and therefore there will be an inexpensive publication charge, which is dependent on the number of pages, in addition to the charge for color figures. This will allow work to be disseminated to a wider audience and also entitle the corresponding author to a free PDF, as well as prepublication of an unedited version of the manuscript.

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