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Bone Tissue Engineering Using Novel Interconnected Porous Hydroxyapatite Ceramics Combined With Marrow Mesenchymal Cells: Quantitative and Three-Dimensional Image Analysise/Ceramic Construct: Comparison With Marrow Mesenchymal Cell/Ceramic Composite

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Abstract:

We developed fully opened interconnected porous calcium hydroxyapatite ceramics having two different pore sizes. One has pores with an average size of 150 μm in diameter, an average 40-μm interconnecting pore diameter, and 75% porosity (HA150). The other has pores with an average size of 300 μm in diameter, an average 60–100-μm interconnecting pore diameter, and 75% porosity (HA300). Because of its smaller pore diameter, HA150 has greater mechanical strength than that of HA300. These ceramics were combined with rat marrow mesenchymal cells and cultured for 2 weeks in the presence of dexamethasone. The cultured ceramics were then implanted into subcutaneous sites in syngeneic rats and harvested 2–8 weeks after implantation. All the implants showed bone formation inside the pore areas as evidenced by decalcified histological sections and microcomputed tomography images, which enabled three-dimensional analysis of the newly formed bone and calculation of the bone volume in the implants. The bone volume increased over time. At 8 weeks after implantation, extensive bone volume was detected not only in the surface pore areas but also in the center pore areas of the implants. A high degree of alkaline phosphatase activity with a peak at 2 weeks and a high level of osteocalcin with a gradual increase over time were detected in the implants. The levels of these biochemical parameters were higher in HA150 than in HA300. The results indicate that a combination of HA150 and mesenchymal cells could be used as an excellent bone graft substitute because of its mechanical properties and capability of inducing bone formation.

Keywords: Bone tissue engineering; Hydroxyapatite; Image analysis; Marrow mesenchymal cell; Osteoblast; Osteoconduction

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/000000004783983819

Affiliations: 1: *Department of Orthopaedics, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita City, Osaka 565-0871, Japan 2: †Tissue Engineering Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 3-11-46 Nakouji, Amagasaki City, Hyogo 661-0974, Japan

Publication date: 2004-01-01

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  • Cell Transplantation publishes original, peer-reviewed research and review articles on the subject of cell transplantation and its application to human diseases. To ensure high-quality contributions from all areas of transplantation, separate section editors and editorial boards have been established. Articles deal with a wide range of topics including physiological, medical, preclinical, tissue engineering, and device-oriented aspects of transplantation of nervous system, endocrine, growth factor-secreting, bone marrow, epithelial, endothelial, and genetically engineered cells, among others. Basic clinical studies and immunological research papers are also featured. To provide complete coverage of this revolutionary field, Cell Transplantation will report on relevant technological advances, and ethical and regulatory considerations of cell transplants. Cell Transplantation is now an Open Access journal starting with volume 18 in 2009, and therefore there will be an inexpensive publication charge, which is dependent on the number of pages, in addition to the charge for color figures. This will allow work to be disseminated to a wider audience and also entitle the corresponding author to a free PDF, as well as prepublication of an unedited version of the manuscript.
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