Bone Tissue Engineering Using Novel Interconnected Porous Hydroxyapatite Ceramics Combined With Marrow Mesenchymal Cells: Quantitative and Three-Dimensional Image Analysise/Ceramic Construct: Comparison With Marrow Mesenchymal Cell/Ceramic Composite
Abstract:We developed fully opened interconnected porous calcium hydroxyapatite ceramics having two different pore sizes. One has pores with an average size of 150 μm in diameter, an average 40-μm interconnecting pore diameter, and 75% porosity (HA150). The other has pores with an average size of 300 μm in diameter, an average 60–100-μm interconnecting pore diameter, and 75% porosity (HA300). Because of its smaller pore diameter, HA150 has greater mechanical strength than that of HA300. These ceramics were combined with rat marrow mesenchymal cells and cultured for 2 weeks in the presence of dexamethasone. The cultured ceramics were then implanted into subcutaneous sites in syngeneic rats and harvested 2–8 weeks after implantation. All the implants showed bone formation inside the pore areas as evidenced by decalcified histological sections and microcomputed tomography images, which enabled three-dimensional analysis of the newly formed bone and calculation of the bone volume in the implants. The bone volume increased over time. At 8 weeks after implantation, extensive bone volume was detected not only in the surface pore areas but also in the center pore areas of the implants. A high degree of alkaline phosphatase activity with a peak at 2 weeks and a high level of osteocalcin with a gradual increase over time were detected in the implants. The levels of these biochemical parameters were higher in HA150 than in HA300. The results indicate that a combination of HA150 and mesenchymal cells could be used as an excellent bone graft substitute because of its mechanical properties and capability of inducing bone formation.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: *Department of Orthopaedics, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita City, Osaka 565-0871, Japan 2: †Tissue Engineering Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 3-11-46 Nakouji, Amagasaki City, Hyogo 661-0974, Japan
Publication date: 2004-01-01
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