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Tissue-Engineered Grafts Matured in the Right Ventricular Outflow Tract

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Autologous smooth muscle cell (SMC)-seeded biodegradable scaffolds could be a suitable material to repair some pediatric right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) cardiac anomalies. Adult syngenic Lewis rat SMCs (2 × 106) were seeded onto a new biodegradable copolymer sponge made of -caprolactone-co-L-lactide reinforced with poly-L-lactide fabric (PCLA). Two weeks after seeding, the patch was used to repair a surgically created RVOT defect in an adult rat. At 8 weeks after implantation the spongy copolymer component was biodegraded, and SM tissue and extracellular matrices containing elastin fibers were present in the scaffolds. By 22 weeks more fibroblasts and collagen were present (p < 0.05). The number of capillaries in the grafts also increased (p < 0.001) between 8 and 22 weeks. The fibrous poly-L-lactide component of the PCLA scaffold remained. The 22-week grafts maintained their thickness and surface area in the RVOT. The SMCs prior to implantation were in a synthetic phenotype and developed in vivo into a more contractile phenotype. By 8 weeks the patches were endothelialized on their endocardial surfaces. Future work to increase the SM tissue and elastin content in the patch will be necessary before implantation into a pediatric large-animal model is tested.
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Keywords: Biodegradable scaffold; Biomaterial; Congenital heart defects; Myocardium; Pediatric cardiac surgery; Phenotype; Tissue engineering; ÈSmooth muscle cells

Document Type: Review Article

Affiliations: 1: *Department of Surgery, Division of Cardiovascular Surgery, Toronto General Research Institute, Toronto General Hospital, University of Toronto, Canada 2: †Toho University School of Medicine, Japan 3: ‡Suzuka University of Medical Science, Japan

Publication date: 2004-01-01

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  • Cell Transplantation publishes original, peer-reviewed research and review articles on the subject of cell transplantation and its application to human diseases. To ensure high-quality contributions from all areas of transplantation, separate section editors and editorial boards have been established. Articles deal with a wide range of topics including physiological, medical, preclinical, tissue engineering, and device-oriented aspects of transplantation of nervous system, endocrine, growth factor-secreting, bone marrow, epithelial, endothelial, and genetically engineered cells, among others. Basic clinical studies and immunological research papers are also featured. To provide complete coverage of this revolutionary field, Cell Transplantation will report on relevant technological advances, and ethical and regulatory considerations of cell transplants. Cell Transplantation is now an Open Access journal starting with volume 18 in 2009, and therefore there will be an inexpensive publication charge, which is dependent on the number of pages, in addition to the charge for color figures. This will allow work to be disseminated to a wider audience and also entitle the corresponding author to a free PDF, as well as prepublication of an unedited version of the manuscript.

    Cell Transplantation is now being published by SAGE. Please visit their website for the most recent issues.

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