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Evaluation of Different Types of Alginate Microcapsules as Bioreactors for Producing Endostatin

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The use of nonautologous cell lines producing a therapeutic substance encapsulated within alginate microcapsules could be an alternative way of treating different diseases in a cost-effective way. Malignant brain tumors have been proposed to be treated locally using engineered cells secreting proteins with therapeutic potential encapsulated within alginate microcapsules. Optimization of the alginate capsule bioreactors is needed before this treatment can be a reality. Recently, we have demonstrated that alginate-poly-L-lysine microcapsules made with high-G alginate and a gelled core disintegrated as cells proliferated. In this study we examined the growth and endostatin secretion of 293-EBNA (293 endo) cells encapsulated in six different alginate microcapsules made with native high-G alginate or enzymatically tailored alginate. Stability studies using an osmotic pressure test showed that alginate-poly-L-lysine-alginate microcapsules made with enzymatically tailored alginate was mechanically stronger than alginate capsules made with native high-G alginate. Growth studies showed that the proliferation of 293 endo cells was diminished in microcapsules made with enzymatically tailored alginate and gelled in a barium solution. Secretion of endostatin was detected in lower amounts from the enzymatically tailored alginate microcapsules compared with the native alginate microcapsules. The stability of the alginate microcapsules diminished as the 293 endo cells grew inside the capsules, while empty alginate microcapsules remained stable. By using microcapsules made of fluorescenamine-labeled alginate it was clearly visualized that cells perforated the alginate microcapsules as they grew, destroying the alginate network. Soluble fluorescence-labeled alginate was taken up by the 293 endo cells, while alginate was not detected in live spheroids within fluorescence-labeled alginate microcapsules. Despite that increased stability was achieved by using enzymatically tailored alginate, the cell proliferation destroyed the alginate microcapsules with time. It is therefore necessary to use cell lines that have properties more suited for alginate encapsulation before this technology can be used for therapy.
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Keywords: 293 cells; Endostatin; Enzymatically tailored alginate microcapsules; Fluorescence-labeled alginate; Stability

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: *Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway 2: †Institute of Biotechnology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway

Publication date: 2003-01-01

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  • Cell Transplantation publishes original, peer-reviewed research and review articles on the subject of cell transplantation and its application to human diseases. To ensure high-quality contributions from all areas of transplantation, separate section editors and editorial boards have been established. Articles deal with a wide range of topics including physiological, medical, preclinical, tissue engineering, and device-oriented aspects of transplantation of nervous system, endocrine, growth factor-secreting, bone marrow, epithelial, endothelial, and genetically engineered cells, among others. Basic clinical studies and immunological research papers are also featured. To provide complete coverage of this revolutionary field, Cell Transplantation will report on relevant technological advances, and ethical and regulatory considerations of cell transplants. Cell Transplantation is now an Open Access journal starting with volume 18 in 2009, and therefore there will be an inexpensive publication charge, which is dependent on the number of pages, in addition to the charge for color figures. This will allow work to be disseminated to a wider audience and also entitle the corresponding author to a free PDF, as well as prepublication of an unedited version of the manuscript.

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