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Activation of Macrophage-Associated Molecules After Brain Death in Islets

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Abstract:

Islet transplantation is now established as an optional treatment for type I diabetes. However, rates of insulin independence in islet transplant recipients are still low. Although the major source of allograft is derived from brain-dead patient, the nonphysiologic state of brain death (BD) deteriorates organs such as liver and kidney. To determine the effects of BD on islets, a rodent model of BD has been used. Histologically, islets of BD rats showed decreased permeability and impaired integrity of the cell membranes. Flow cytometric analysis showed that CD11b/c-positive cells within islets were slightly increased in BD. This result suggests that BD induces macrophage infiltration into the islets. Moreover, RT-PCR revealed significant augmentation of macrophages-associated inflammatory molecules (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and MCP-1) in islets from a BD donor. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was weakly expressed, although not reaching statistical significance compared with control. Our results indicate that islets from a BD donor are immunologically activated and have a potential risk factor for early graft loss and a poor long-term function of grafts in clinical setting of islet transplantation. Immunomodulation, to eliminate intraislet immunocytes and/or activated macrophage-associated molecules, might be necessary for the better outcome after islet graft from BD donors.

Keywords: Brain death; Immunogenicity; Intraislet cytokines; Islet of Langerhans; Islet-infiltrating immunocyte

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/000000003783985205

Affiliations: Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kobe University, Kobe, Japan

Publication date: January 1, 2003

More about this publication?
  • Cell Transplantation publishes original, peer-reviewed research and review articles on the subject of cell transplantation and its application to human diseases. To ensure high-quality contributions from all areas of transplantation, separate section editors and editorial boards have been established. Articles deal with a wide range of topics including physiological, medical, preclinical, tissue engineering, and device-oriented aspects of transplantation of nervous system, endocrine, growth factor-secreting, bone marrow, epithelial, endothelial, and genetically engineered cells, among others. Basic clinical studies and immunological research papers are also featured. To provide complete coverage of this revolutionary field, Cell Transplantation will report on relevant technological advances, and ethical and regulatory considerations of cell transplants. Cell Transplantation is now an Open Access journal starting with volume 18 in 2009, and therefore there will be an inexpensive publication charge, which is dependent on the number of pages, in addition to the charge for color figures. This will allow work to be disseminated to a wider audience and also entitle the corresponding author to a free PDF, as well as prepublication of an unedited version of the manuscript.
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