Development of a Novel Cytomedical Treatment That Can Protect Entrapped Cells From Host Humoral Immunity
Cell therapy is expected to relieve the shortage of donors needed for organ transplantation. When patients are treated with allogeneic or xenogeneic cells, it is necessary to develop a means by which to isolate administered cells from an immune attack by the host. We have developed “cytomedicine,” which consists of functional cells entrapped in semipermeable polymer, and previously reported that alginate-poly-L-lysine-alginate microcapsules and agarose microbeads could protect the entrapped cells from injury by cellular immunity. However, their ability to isolate from humoral immunity was insufficient. It is well known that the complement system plays an essential role in rejection of transplanted cells by host humoral immunity. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to develop a novel cytomedical device containing a polymer capable of inactivating complement. In the screening of various polymers, polyvinyl sulfate (PVS) exhibited high anticomplement activity and low cytotoxicity. Murine pancreatic β-cell line (MIN6 cell) entrapped in agarose microbeads containing PVS maintained viability and physiological insulin secretion, replying in response to glucose concentration, and resisted rabbit antisera in vitro. PVS inhibited hemolysis of sensitized sheep erythrocytes (EAs) and rabbit erythrocytes by the complement system. This result suggests that PVS inhibits both the classical and alternative complement pathways of the complement system. Next, the manner in which PVS exerts its effects on complement components was examined. PVS was found to inhibit generation of C4a and Ba generation in activation of the classical and alternative pathways, respectively. Moreover, when the EAC1 cells, which were carrying C1 on the EAs, treated with PVS were exposed to C1-deficient serum, hemolysis decreased in a PVS dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that PVS inhibits C1 in the classical pathway and C3 convertase formation in the alternative pathway. Therefore, PVS may be a useful polymer for developing an anticomplement device for cytomedical therapy.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: *Department of Biopharmaceutics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871, Japan 2: †Department of Medical Technology, Osaka Prefectural College of Health Sciences, Osaka 538-8555, Japan 3: ‡Department of Biopharmaceutics, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Kyoto 607-8414, Japan 4: §Department of Nutrition and Physiological Chemistry, Osaka University Medical School, Osaka 565-0871, Japan
Publication date: January 1, 2002
- Cell Transplantation publishes original, peer-reviewed research and review articles on the subject of cell transplantation and its application to human diseases. To ensure high-quality contributions from all areas of transplantation, separate section editors and editorial boards have been established. Articles deal with a wide range of topics including physiological, medical, preclinical, tissue engineering, and device-oriented aspects of transplantation of nervous system, endocrine, growth factor-secreting, bone marrow, epithelial, endothelial, and genetically engineered cells, among others. Basic clinical studies and immunological research papers are also featured. To provide complete coverage of this revolutionary field, Cell Transplantation will report on relevant technological advances, and ethical and regulatory considerations of cell transplants. Cell Transplantation is now an Open Access journal starting with volume 18 in 2009, and therefore there will be an inexpensive publication charge, which is dependent on the number of pages, in addition to the charge for color figures. This will allow work to be disseminated to a wider audience and also entitle the corresponding author to a free PDF, as well as prepublication of an unedited version of the manuscript.