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Poly-L-Lysine Induces Fibrosis on Alginate Microcapsules via the Induction of Cytokines

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Alginate–poly-L-lysine (PLL) microcapsules can be used for transplantation of insulin-producing cells for treatment of type I diabetes. In this work we wanted to study the inflammatory reactions against implanted microcapsules due to PLL. We have seen that by reducing the PLL layer, less overgrowth of the capsule is obtained. By incubating different cell types with PLL and afterwards measuring cell viability with MTT, we found massive cell death at concentrations of PLL higher than 10 μg/ml. Staining with annexin V and propidium iodide showed that PLL induced necrosis but not apoptosis. The proinflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), was detected in supernatants from monocytes stimulated with PLL. The TNF response was partly inhibited with antibodies against CD14, which is a well-known receptor for lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Bactericidal permeability increasing protein (BPI) and a lipid A analogue (B-975), which both inhibit LPS, did not inhibit PLL from stimulating monocytes to TNF production. This indicates that PLL and LPS bind to different sites on monocytes, but because they both are inhibited by a p38 MAP kinase inhibitor, they seem to have a common element in the signal transducing pathway. These results suggest that PLL may provoke inflammatory responses either directly or indirectly through its necrosis-inducing abilities. By combining soluble PLL and alginate both the toxic and TNF-inducing effects of PLL were reduced. The implications of these data are to use alginate microcapsules with low amounts of PLL for transplantation purposes.

Keywords: Key words: Alginate–poly-L-lysine microcapsule; Fibrosis; Cytokines; Necrosis

Document Type: Research Article


Affiliations: 1: †Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway 2: ‡Department of Metabolism and Endocrinology, Free University of Brussels, Brussels, Belgium 3: *Department of Biotechnology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway

Publication date: 2001-03-01

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  • Cell Transplantation publishes original, peer-reviewed research and review articles on the subject of cell transplantation and its application to human diseases. To ensure high-quality contributions from all areas of transplantation, separate section editors and editorial boards have been established. Articles deal with a wide range of topics including physiological, medical, preclinical, tissue engineering, and device-oriented aspects of transplantation of nervous system, endocrine, growth factor-secreting, bone marrow, epithelial, endothelial, and genetically engineered cells, among others. Basic clinical studies and immunological research papers are also featured. To provide complete coverage of this revolutionary field, Cell Transplantation will report on relevant technological advances, and ethical and regulatory considerations of cell transplants. Cell Transplantation is now an Open Access journal starting with volume 18 in 2009, and therefore there will be an inexpensive publication charge, which is dependent on the number of pages, in addition to the charge for color figures. This will allow work to be disseminated to a wider audience and also entitle the corresponding author to a free PDF, as well as prepublication of an unedited version of the manuscript.
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