Poly-L-Lysine Induces Fibrosis on Alginate Microcapsules via the Induction of Cytokines
Abstract:Alginate–poly-L-lysine (PLL) microcapsules can be used for transplantation of insulin-producing cells for treatment of type I diabetes. In this work we wanted to study the inflammatory reactions against implanted microcapsules due to PLL. We have seen that by reducing the PLL layer, less overgrowth of the capsule is obtained. By incubating different cell types with PLL and afterwards measuring cell viability with MTT, we found massive cell death at concentrations of PLL higher than 10 μg/ml. Staining with annexin V and propidium iodide showed that PLL induced necrosis but not apoptosis. The proinflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), was detected in supernatants from monocytes stimulated with PLL. The TNF response was partly inhibited with antibodies against CD14, which is a well-known receptor for lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Bactericidal permeability increasing protein (BPI) and a lipid A analogue (B-975), which both inhibit LPS, did not inhibit PLL from stimulating monocytes to TNF production. This indicates that PLL and LPS bind to different sites on monocytes, but because they both are inhibited by a p38 MAP kinase inhibitor, they seem to have a common element in the signal transducing pathway. These results suggest that PLL may provoke inflammatory responses either directly or indirectly through its necrosis-inducing abilities. By combining soluble PLL and alginate both the toxic and TNF-inducing effects of PLL were reduced. The implications of these data are to use alginate microcapsules with low amounts of PLL for transplantation purposes.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: †Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway 2: ‡Department of Metabolism and Endocrinology, Free University of Brussels, Brussels, Belgium 3: *Department of Biotechnology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway
Publication date: January 1, 2001
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