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Update on Immunoisolation Cell Therapy for CNS Diseases

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Abstract:

Delivery of potentially therapeutic drugs to the brain is hindered by the blood–brain barrier (BBB), which restricts the diffusion of drugs from the vasculature to the brain parenchyma. One means of overcoming the BBB is with cellular implants that produce and deliver therapeutic molecules. Polymer encapsulation, or immunoisolation, provides a means of overcoming the BBB to deliver therapeutic molecules directly into the CNS region of interest. Immunoisolation is based on the observation that xenogeneic cells can be protected from host rejection by encapsulating, or surrounding, them within an immunoisolatory, semipermeable membrane. Cells can be enclosed within a selective, semipermeable membrane barrier that admits oxygen and required nutrients and releases bioactive cell secretions, but restricts passage of larger cytotoxic agents from the host immune defense system. The selective membrane eliminates the need for chronic immunosuppression of the host and allows the implanted cells to be obtained from nonhuman sources. In this review, cell immunoisolation for treating CNS diseases is updated from considerations of device configurations, membrane manufacturing and characterization in preclinical models of Alzheimer's and Huntington's disease.

Keywords: Key words: Immunoisolation; Blood–brain barrier; CNS diseases

Document Type: Review Article

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/000000001783986981

Affiliations: Department of Neuroscience, Alkermes, Inc, 64 Sidney Street, Cambridge MA 02139

Publication date: 2001-02-01

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  • Cell Transplantation publishes original, peer-reviewed research and review articles on the subject of cell transplantation and its application to human diseases. To ensure high-quality contributions from all areas of transplantation, separate section editors and editorial boards have been established. Articles deal with a wide range of topics including physiological, medical, preclinical, tissue engineering, and device-oriented aspects of transplantation of nervous system, endocrine, growth factor-secreting, bone marrow, epithelial, endothelial, and genetically engineered cells, among others. Basic clinical studies and immunological research papers are also featured. To provide complete coverage of this revolutionary field, Cell Transplantation will report on relevant technological advances, and ethical and regulatory considerations of cell transplants. Cell Transplantation is now an Open Access journal starting with volume 18 in 2009, and therefore there will be an inexpensive publication charge, which is dependent on the number of pages, in addition to the charge for color figures. This will allow work to be disseminated to a wider audience and also entitle the corresponding author to a free PDF, as well as prepublication of an unedited version of the manuscript.
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