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Precise descriptions and interpretations are given for six important displays of the Kittiwake. The social significance of one display (Head-shaking) is revised. Three new displays (Head Vibrating, Trembling-choking and Pre-departure display) are described and their functions identified. The newly described displays play prominent roles in the breeding biology of this species. This is of particular importance in the understanding of social interactions. The wide variety of form of the displays probably reveals a great complexity of behavioural messages. Social communication integrates all these subtle differences.
Bird Behavior is an international and interdisciplinary journal that publishes high-quality, original research on descriptive and experimental analyses of species-typical avian behavior, including the areas of ethology, behavioral ecology, comparative psychology, and behavioral neuroscience.