Skip to main content

Birnessites with different average manganese oxidation states synthesized, characterized, and transformed to todorokite at atmospheric pressure

Buy Article:

$28.00 plus tax (Refund Policy)

Abstract:

Todorokite is a common manganese oxide mineral, with a tunnel structure, found in Earth surface environments, and is easily synthesized from layered birnessite. The aim of the current study was to prepare birnessites with different average manganese oxidation states (AOS) by controlling the MnO4/Mn2+ratio in concentrated NaOH or KOH. A series of (Na,K)-birnessites, Na-birnessites, and K-birnessites with different AOS was synthesized successfully in strongly alkaline media. The (Na,K)-birnessites and Na-birnessites prepared in NaOH clearly contained both large (500–1000 nm) and small (40–400 nm), plate-shaped crystallites. The K-birnessites prepared in KOH media consisted mostly of irregular (100–200 nm), plate-shaped crystallites. The degree of transformation of birnessite to todorokite at atmospheric pressure decreased as the AOS values of (Na,K)-birnessites and Na-birnessites increased from 3.51 to 3.80. No todorokite was present when a Na-birnessite with an AOS value of 3.87 was used as the precursor. Pyrophosphate, which is known to form strong complexes with Mn3+ at a pH range of 1–8, was added to a suspension of (Na,K)-birnessites in order to sequester the available Mn3+ in (Na,K)-birnessites. Removal of Mn3+ from birnessite MnO6 layers by pyrophosphate restricted transformation to todorokite – no (Na,K)-birnessite transformed to todorokite after pyrophosphate treatment. The interlayer K+ initially within (Na,K)-birnessites could not be completely ion-exchanged with Mg2+ to form todorokite at atmospheric pressure. No todorokite was forthcoming from K-birnessites even from those with small AOS values (3.50).

Keywords: AOS; ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE; BIRNESSITE; TODOROKITE

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1346/CCMN.2009.0570605

Publication date: 2009-12-01

More about this publication?
  • The JOURNAL publishes articles of interest to the international community of clay scientists, including but not limited to areas in mineralogy, crystallography, geology, geochemistry, sedimentology, soil science, agronomy, physical chemistry, colloid chemistry, ceramics, petroleum engineering, foundry engineering, and soil mechanics. Clays and Clay Minerals exists to disseminate to its worldwide readership the most recent developments in all of these aspects of clay materials. Manuscripts are welcome from all countries.

    Clays and Clay Minerals is the official publication of The Clay Minerals Society.

    The Editor-in-Chief is Professor Joseph W. Stucki jstucki@illinois.edu

    Publications of The Clay Minerals Society
    Source Clays

  • Editorial Board
  • Information for Authors
  • Membership Information
  • Annual Meeting of The Clay Minerals Society
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites
  • Access Key
  • Free ContentFree content
  • Partial Free ContentPartial Free content
  • New ContentNew content
  • Open Access ContentOpen access content
  • Partial Open Access ContentPartial Open access content
  • Subscribed ContentSubscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed ContentPartial Subscribed content
  • Free Trial ContentFree trial content
UA-1313315-24
Cookie Policy
X
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more