Use of Laparotomy in a Staged Approach for Resolution of Bilateral or Complicated Perineal Hernia in 41 dogs
To evaluate the value of laparotomy as the initial step in the treatment of bilateral or complicated perineal hernia (PH) in dogs. Study Design
Retrospective study. Animals or Sample Population
Forty-one dogs with PH. Methods
Dogs with bilateral or complicated PH treated by a 2-step approach between November 1997 and December 2001 were studied. Inclusion criteria for complicated PH were: recurrence of PH, unilateral PH with a major rectal dilatation, PH with a concurrent surgical prostatic disease, and PH with retroflexed bladder. Colopexy, vas deferens pexy, cystopexy, and prostatic omentalization were performed during laparotomy as needed. Later, PH was performed by internal obturator muscle flap (IOMF) or if there was a perineal rent or weakness on the contralateral side, appositional herniorrhaphy was performed. Outcome was followed for ≥6 months. Results
PH were bilateral (20 dogs) or unilateral (21). Twenty-one (51%) dogs had prostatic disease (clinical or ultrasonography diagnosis; 17 confirmed histologically) and 12 (29%) had urinary bladder retroflexion. Forty-one colopexies, 32 vas deferens pexies, 6 cystopexies, and 9 prostatic surgeries (omentalization or perineal cyst resection) were performed. PH was performed 2–20 days (median, 6 days) later: 61 IOMF transpositions, 13 appositional. Mean follow-up time was 26.6 months (range, 6–54 months, median, 27 months). PH was resolved in 37 (90%) dogs; 4 dogs had recurrence, and all occurred within 6 months. Thirty-eight (92%) dogs had an improved quality of life (good in 34 dogs, fair in 4 dogs). Wound complications occurred in 7 dogs (17%). Postoperative urine dribbling occurred in 15 dogs (37%) and was irreversible in 7 dogs (17%). Postoperative fecal straining persisted in 18 dogs (44%), and was permanent in 4 dogs (10%). Fecal incontinence did not occur. Conclusions
In bilateral or complicated PH, fixation of the urinary bladder and colon, and treatment of prostatic disease increase the chances of resolution. Emptying of the perineal space by organ pexy allows improved observation during herniorrhaphy. Despite a 90% clinical resolution, dogs with complicated PH treated by a 2-step protocol may have persistent urinary and fecal disorders. Clinical Relevance
To improve the prognosis of bilateral or complicated PH, investigation and treatment of concomitant lesions (rectal, prostatic, bladder) should be part of a rational surgical strategy using a 2-step protocol.