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Comparison of fluid types for resuscitation after acute blood loss in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)

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Abstract Objective–

The purpose of this study was to determine the LD50 for acute blood loss in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos), compare the mortality rate among 3 fluid resuscitation groups, and determine the time required for a regenerative RBC response. Design–

Prospective study. Setting–

Medical College of Wisconsin Research facility. Animals–

Eighteen mallard ducks were included for the LD50 study and 28 for the fluid resuscitation study. Interventions–

Phlebotomy was performed during both the LD50 and fluid resuscitation studies. Ducks in the fluid resuscitation study received a 5 mL/kg intravenous bolus of crystalloids, hetastarch (HES), or a hemoglobin-based oxygen-carrying solution (HBOCS). Measurements and Main Results–

The LD50 for acute blood loss was 60% of total blood volume. This blood volume was removed in the fluid resuscitation study to create a model of acute blood loss. Following fluid administration, 6 birds in the crystalloid group (66%), 4 birds in the HES group (40%), and 2 birds in the HBOCS group (20%) died. No statistical difference in mortality rate was seen among the 3 fluid resuscitation groups. Relative polychromasia evaluated post-phlebotomy demonstrated regeneration starting at 24 hours and continuing through 48 hours. Conclusions–

The LD50 for acute blood loss in mallard ducks was 60% of their total blood volume. Although no statistical difference in mortality rate was appreciated among the 3 fluid resuscitation groups, a trend of decreased mortality rate was observed in the HBOCS group. An early regenerative response was apparent following acute blood loss.

Keywords: colloids; exotic pets (including birds); hemoglobin-based oxygen carrying solution; regenerative anemia; shock

Document Type: Research Article


Affiliations: 1: Milwaukee Emergency Clinic for Animals and Referral Services, 3670 South 108th St, Greenfield, WI 53228, 2: Angell Memorial Animal Hospital, Boston, 3505 Huntington Ave, Jamaica Plain, MA 01105, 3: Division of Comparative Pathology, University of Miami, 1611 NW 12th Ave, Miami, FL 33146, 4: Colorado State University Animal Cancer Center, 300 West Drake Rd, Fort Collins, CO 80526, 5: Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Rd, Milwaukee, WI 53226, and 6: Animal Emergency Center, 2100 West Silver Spring Dr, Glendale, WI 53209

Publication date: 2009-10-01

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