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Epstein–Barr virus‐positive post‐transplant lymphoproliferative disorder of the central nervous system, after renal transplantation with a discrepancy in viral load between peripheral blood and cerebrospinal fluid

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A 43‐year‐old female developed an Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)‐positive post‐transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) in the central nervous system (CNS), 14 years after renal transplantation. One year prior to presentation, the patients’ treatment regimen was altered from cyclosporine, azathioprine, and prednisone to mycophenolate mofetil and prednisone. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed lesions suspect for malignant lymphoma. The EBV real‐time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on peripheral blood was negative, but highly positive on cerebrospinal fluid. EBV‐positive PTLD was confirmed using histological analysis of cerebral biopsies. Despite tapering of immune suppressive medication and treatment with rituximab and chemotherapy, the patient deceased 50 days after presentation. This case illustrates that vigilance is required when presented with a negative EBV PCR result on peripheral blood when PTLD of the CNS is suspected. This late presentation suggests a relation to the switch in immunosuppressive regimen 1 year earlier.
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Document Type: Case Report

Affiliations: 1:  Department of Internal Medicine, Advancet Center for Renal Disease, Vascular Medicine and Diabetes, ZGT Hospital, Almelo, The Netherlands 2:  Laboratory for Medical Microbiology and Public Health, Enschede, The Netherlands 3:  Department of Nephrology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands

Publication date: 2012-11-01

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