In vitro antiplasmodial activity and cytotoxicity of extracts and fractions of Vitex madiensis, medicinal plant of Gabon
Vitex madiensis Oliv. (Lamiaceae) is traditionally used to treat malaria symptoms in Haut‐Ogooué, Gabon. Leaves and stem barks extracts were obtained using dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and methanol (MeOH) as extraction solvents and fractionated on silica gel column. The in vitro antiplasmodial activity of CH2Cl2, EtOAc and MeOH extracts and fractions was evaluated against the chloroquine‐resistant FCB strain and field isolates of Plasmodium falciparum using the DELI test. The cytotoxicity of the extracts was tested on MRC‐5 and THP1 cells using the tetrazolium salt MTT colorimetric assay, and the selectivity index (SI) of each extract was calculated. CH2Cl2 extract, the EA1 fraction from EtOAc extract of stem barks and cyclohexane (Lcycl), dichloromethane (LDM) and butanol (Lbut) fractions from MeOH/H2O extract of leaves exhibited the highest in vitro antiplasmodial activity on FCB strain and field isolates (IC50 from 0.53 to 4.87 μg/ml) with high selectivity index (of 20.15–1800). These data support the use of V. madiensis in malaria treatment along with continued investigations within traditional medicines in the search of new antimalarial agents. The EA1, C6H12 and CH2Cl2 fractions could be selected for future investigation or/and for the treatment of malaria symptoms after standardization.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: Unité de parasitologie médicale, Centre International de Recherche Médicale de Franceville, Franceville, Gabon 2: Laboratoire de substances naturelles et de synthèse organométallique, Université des Sciences et Techniques de Masuku, Franceville, Gabon 3: Université de Rouen, UMR CNRS 6014, COBRA IRCOF, UFR de Médecine et de Pharmacie, Rouen, France
Publication date: 2012-03-01