Impact of rotavirus vaccination on diarrhoea mortality and hospital admissions in Brazil
Objective To analyse the data reported by the national surveillance system of Brazil, including data on diarrhoea mortality and hospital admissions before and after rotavirus vaccine introduction, and evaluate the impact of its widespread use under operational conditions.
Method Retrospective analysis of routinely collected data was reported by several surveillance systems of Brazil, comprising an 8‐year period of all diarrhoea‐related hospitalisations and deaths in children <5 years old (2002–2009). Linear regressions were used to compare trends of diarrhoea hospitalisations and deaths before and after vaccine introduction (2002–2005 vs. 2006–2009).
Results There was a long‐term reduction in hospitalisations that preceded the introduction of the vaccine. This reduction was more marked in <1‐year‐old than in 1– to 4‐year‐old children. All‐cause diarrhoea hospitalisations decreased further after vaccine introduction and the decrease was larger in <1‐year‐old (−35.6%) than in 1– to 4‐year‐old children (−12.3%). The number of deaths was decreasing before vaccine introduction, and the decrease also accelerated after vaccine introduction, with deaths halving in <1‐year‐old and decreasing by 32.9% in 1‐ to 4‐year‐old children. The linear relationships between hospitalisations and deaths were statistically different before and after vaccine introduction.
Conclusions The data demonstrate a decreasing trend in all‐cause diarrhoea‐related hospitalisations and deaths in children <5 years of age. These reductions were steeper between 2006 and 2009, highlighting the potential beneficial effect of the rotavirus vaccine associated with all‐cause diarrhoeal disease.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK 2: Instituto Materno Infantil Prof. Fernando Figueira, Recife, Brazil 3: Hospital of Trento, Trento, Italy 4: Sergipe State Department of Health, Aracaju, Brazil
Publication date: 2011-09-01