Viral acute respiratory infections among infants visited in a rural hospital of southern Mozambique
Objectives To determine the epidemiology and clinical presentation of virus‐associated acute respiratory infections (ARI) in Mozambican infants.
Methods A systematic selection of nasopharyngeal aspirates (n = 333), collected from infants younger than 12 months who visited Manhiça District Hospital (southern Mozambique) with ARI during a 12 months respiratory syncitial virus surveillance, were tested for other common respiratory viruses. Four different polymerase chain reactions were used to diagnose rhinovirus (RV), influenza (Flu; A and B), adenovirus (ADV), human metapneumovirus (hMPV), parainfluenza (PIV; 1, 2, 3 and 4AB) and enterovirus (EV).
Results At least one study virus was identified in more than half of the samples tested (185/333). Overall, 231 viruses were detected among 185 infants, listed in the order of prevalence: RV (26%), Flu (15%), ADV (14%), hMPV (7%), PIV (5%) and EV (3%). Acute respiratory infections (ARI) cases and viral episodes were seasonal and concentrate during the warm and the rainy season. Clinical features were similar among all study children regardless of the detection of virus, with the exception of ear discharge, which was more frequent among viral cases [6% (11/183) vs. 1% (2/144); P = 0.034]. Children with multiple viral infections had higher odds of severity such as nasal flaring and indrawing (OR = 2.7, P = 0.028 and OR = 3.8, P = 0.007, respectively) and higher odds of hospitalisation (OR = 4.42, P = 0.001, adjusted by age and sex).
Conclusions Viral ARI are frequent among infants visited in MHD. Strategies to prevent mild respiratory infections, and specially their complications, might alleviate health systems of source‐limited settings.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: Barcelona Centre for International Health Research (CRESIB), Hospital Clínic/Institut d'Investigacions Biomedicas August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain 2: Centro de Investigaçaõ em Saúde da Manhiça (CISM), Maputo, Mozambique 3: National Center for Microbiology, Institute of Health Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
Publication date: 01 September 2011