Efficacy of Chloroquine and Sulphadoxine‐Pyrimethamine either alone or in combination before introduction of ACT as first‐line therapy in uncomplicated
Objective In India, till recently, Chloroquine was used as first‐line therapy in areas with Chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases. The National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP) has introduced artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) as first‐line option to treat all P. falciparum cases in the country. This study was carried out to ascertain the efficacy of Chloroquine and Sulphadoxine‐Pyrimethamine, either alone or in combination, before the launch of ACT by NVBDCP.
Methods A total of 300 P. falciparum malaria cases were enrolled randomly in three study arms, Chloroquine (CQ), Sulphadoxine‐Pyrimethamine (SP) and Chloroquine plus Sulphadoxine‐Pyrimethamine (CQ + SP). All patients were followed up for 28 days as per WHO (Assessment and Monitoring of Antimalarial Drug Efficacy for the Treatment of Uncomplicated Falciparum Malaria, Geneva, 2003) Protocol. Paired blood samples of treatment failure cases were collected and subjected to MSP 1, MSP 2 and GLURP genotyping for differentiation between re‐infection and recrudescence. The data were analysed by Kaplan–Meier survival curve according to WHO standard procedures.
Results The overall failure rate including both early treatment failure (ETF) and late treatment failure (LTF) of CQ, SP and CQ + SP were 61%, 14% and 8%, respectively, in the study area. Of 60 recurrent malaria cases, genotyping was successful in 49 cases, revealing that most of the (46/49; 94%) cases of recurrent malaria were due to recrudescence.
Conclusion In Jalpaiguri District the overall failure rate of CQ was 61% and of SP 14%, which was well above the WHO recommended cut‐off threshold level (10%) for change of drug policy.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata, India 2: Office of the Assistant Chief Medical Officer of Health, Jalpaiguri, India 3: Department of Health & Family Welfare, Govt. of West Bengal, Kolkata, India 4: Department of Zoology, University of Calcutta, Kolkata, India
Publication date: 2011-08-01