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Emergence of a new focus of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania tropica in rural communities of Bam district after the earthquake, Iran

Authors: Sharifi, Iraj1; Poursmaelian, Somayeh1; Aflatoonian, Mohammad Reza1; Ardakani, Reza Fotouhi1; Mirzaei, Mohammad2; Fekri, Ali Reza1; Khamesipour, Ali3; Parizi, Maryam Hakimi1; Harandi, Majid Fasihi1

Source: Tropical Medicine & International Health, Volume 16, Number 4, April 2011 , pp. 510-513(4)

Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell

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Abstract:

Summary Objectives  To describe a new emerging focus of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) due to in rural areas of Dehbakry county, south-eastern Iran, after the earthquake of 2003. Methods  House-to-house survey of 3884 inhabitants for active leishmaniasis lesions or scars. The diagnosis was confirmed by smears, cultures and identification of the parasite by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results  All age groups were affected, although patients ≤10 years of age showed the highest rate of infection (= 0.0001). The overall prevalence rate was 5.3%; 6.3% in females and 4.3% in males. Of 204 cases, 1.8% had active sores and 3.5% had scars, with a significant difference between the sexes (= 0.005). 47% of the lesions were on the face and 77.9% had one lesion. The incidence rose gradually 2004–2005, but grew exponentially 2006–2008. Electrophoresis of PCR products indicated that was the causative agent. Conclusions  The current emergence was unexpected in this rural locality, where no previous history of CL was recorded. According to our knowledge this is the first report of a gradually establishing new ACL focus in rural communities after the 2003 earthquake.

French
Emergence d’un nouveau foyer de leishmaniose cutanée anthroponotique à Leishmania tropica dans des communautés rurales du district de Bam après le séisme en Iran Objectifs: 

Décrire un nouveau foyer émergent de leishmaniose cutanée anthroponotique (LCA) due àLeishmania tropica dans des zones rurales du comté de Dehbakry, dans le sud-est de l’Iran, après le tremblement de terre de 2003. Méthodes: 

Surveillance de maison à maison sur 3884 habitants pour des lésions de leishmaniose actives ou cicatrisées. Le diagnostic a été confirmé par frottis, culture et identification du parasite par la PCR. Résultats: 

Tous les groupes d’âge étaient touchés bien que les patients ≤ 10 ans montraient le plus fort taux d’infection (p = 0,0001). Le taux de prévalence global était de 5,3%, dont 6,3% chez les femmes et 4,3% chez les hommes. Sur 204 cas, 1,8% avaient des lésions actives et 3,5% présentaient des cicatrices, avec une différence significative selon le sexe (p = 0,005). 47% des lésions étaient sur le visage et 77,9% avaient une lésion. L’incidence a augmenté progressivement entre 2004 et 2005, mais a augmenté de façon exponentielle entre 2006 et 2008. L’électrophorèse des produits de PCR a identifiéL. tropica comme l’agent causal. Conclusions: 

L’émergence actuelle était inattendue dans cette localité rurale où aucun antécédent de LC n’avait été enregistré. Selon notre connaissance, il s’agit ici du premier report d’un foyer de LCA s’établissant progressivement dans les communautés rurales, après le tremblement de terre de 2003.

Keywords: Epidemiología; Iran; Irán; Leishmania tropica; anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis; epidemiology; leishmaniasis cutánea antroponótica; leishmaniose cutanée anthroponotique; épidémiologie

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3156.2011.02729.x

Affiliations: 1:  Dermatology and Leishmaniasis Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran 2:  Parasitology Unit, Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Bahonar University, Kerman, Iran 3:  Center for Research and Training in Skin Diseases and Leprosy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Publication date: April 1, 2011

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