Skip to main content

Free Content The epidemiology of Leishmania donovani infection in high transmission foci in India

Download Article:

You have access to the full text article on a website external to Ingenta Connect.

Please click here to view this article on Wiley Online Library.

You may be required to register and activate access on Wiley Online Library before you can obtain the full text. If you have any queries please visit Wiley Online Library


Summary Objective 

Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is highly prevalent in Bihar, India. India and its neighbours aim at eliminating VL, but several knowledge gaps in the epidemiology of VL may hamper that effort. The prevalence of asymptomatic infections with Leishmania donovani and their role in transmission dynamics are not well understood. We report data from a sero-survey in Bihar. Methods 

Demographic and immunological surveys were carried out in July and November 2006, respectively in 16 highly VL endemic foci in Muzaffarpur district in Bihar. Household and individual information was gathered and capillary blood samples were collected on filter papers. Direct agglutination test (DAT) was used to determine infected individuals (cut-off titre 1:1600). DAT results were tabulated against individual and household variables. A multivariate generalized estimating equation (GEE) model was used to study the prevalence of serologically positive individuals taking into account the clustering at household and cluster levels. Results 

Of study subjects 18% were DAT positive, and this proportion increased with age. Women had a significantly lower prevalence than men >14 years old. Owning domestic animals (cows, buffaloes or goats) was associated with a higher risk of being DAT positive [OR 1.16 (95% CI 1.01–1.32)], but socio-economic status was not. Conclusions 

Prevalence of leishmanial antibodies was high in these communities, but variable. Demographic factors (i.e. marriage) may explain the lower DAT positivity in women >14 years of age. Within these homogeneously poor communities, socio-economic status was not linked to L. donovani infection risk at the individual level, but ownership of domestic animals was.

Keywords: India; Leishmania donovani; direct agglutination test (DAT); epidemiology; infection; kala-azar

Document Type: Research Article


Affiliations: 1:  Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India 2:  London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK 3:  Department of Public Health, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium 4:  Division of International and Humanitarian Medicine, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland

Publication date: July 1, 2010

Access Key

Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Partial Open Access Content
Partial Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more