Free Content Epidemiology and control of trachoma: systematic review

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Abstract:

Summary

Trachoma is the commonest infectious cause of blindness. Recurrent episodes of infection with serovars A–C of Chlamydia trachomatis cause conjunctival inflammation in children who go on to develop scarring and blindness as adults. It was estimated that in 2002 at least 1.3 million people were blind from trachoma, and currently 40 million people are thought to have active disease and 8.2 million to have trichiasis. The disease is largely found in poor, rural communities in developing countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. The WHO promotes trachoma control through a multifaceted approach involving surgery, mass antibiotic distribution, encouraging facial cleanliness and environmental improvements. This has been associated with significant reductions in the prevalence of active disease over the past 20 years, but there remain a large number of people with trichiasis who are at risk of blindness.

French
Le trachome est la plus fréquente cause infectieuse de cécité. Des épisodes récurrents d’infection par Chlamydia trachomatis sérovars A-C provoquent une inflammation de la conjonctive chez les enfants qui plus tard développent des cicatrices et la cécitéà l’âge adulte. Il a été estimé qu’en 2002, au moins 1,3 millions de personnes étaient aveugles à cause du trachome et actuellement 40 millions de personnes souffriraient de la maladie active dont 8,2 millions avec trichiasis. La maladie sévit en grande partie dans les communautés rurales pauvres dans les pays en développement, particulièrement en Afrique sub-saharienne. L’OMS encourage la lutte contre le trachome à travers une approche à multiples facettes comprenant la chirurgie, la distribution massive d’antibiotiques, la promotion de la propreté du visage et des améliorations de l’environnement. Cela a été associéà une réduction significative de la prévalence de la maladie active au cours des 20 dernières années, mais il reste un grand nombre de personnes atteintes de trichiasis qui sont à risque de cécité.

Keywords: Chlamydia trachomatis; Trachome; Tracoma; chlamydia trachomatis; control; epidemiology; epidemiología; epidémiologie; examen; lutte; review; revisión; trachoma

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3156.2010.02521.x

Affiliations: 1:  London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK 2:  Unité d’Ophtalmologie, Programme de Lutte Contre la Cécité, Région médicale de Zinguinchor, Senegal

Publication date: June 1, 2010

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