Skip to main content

Free Content Does onchocerciasis transmission take place in hypoendemic areas? a study from the North Region of Cameroon

Download Article:

You have access to the full text article on a website external to Ingenta Connect.

Please click here to view this article on Wiley Online Library.

You may be required to register and activate access on Wiley Online Library before you can obtain the full text. If you have any queries please visit Wiley Online Library


Summary Objective 

Community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) for onchocerciasis control is targeted to meso and hyperendemic areas in Africa. Below the threshold, communities are considered hypoendemic and, mass treatment is not recommended. As policy begins to shift from control to elimination, the role of hypoendemic areas in maintaining Onchocerca volvulus needs to be re-examined. The study determined whether independent transmission occurs in a hypoendemic area in the North region of Cameroon. Methods 

Ten ‘high risk’ communities along the River Mayo Douka system in Ngong Health District, at least 20 km from the nearest CDTI program were studied. Six hundred and forty-nine adults (over 20 years of age) and 561 children (under 10 years) were examined for nodules and microfilaria. A subsample of 334 adults was examined for onchocercal ocular morbidity. Simulium flies from 4 collection points were captured over 3 months annually for 2 years and dissected for larval stages of O. volvulus. Results 

Nodule and microfilariae (mf) prevalence among adults was 12.20% and 2.91%, and 9.2% and 0.48% among children, respectively. Blindness because of onchocerciasis was insignificant, although low rates of chronic onchocercal ocular disease (<2%) were observed. Four (0.16 percent) of 255 flies collected in 2008 were infected with L3 larval stage, and 1 black fly of 39 collected in 2009 had two L2 larval stage morphologically consistent with O. volvulus. Conclusion 

Ngong is a ‘hypoendemic’ focus with likely low grade indigenous transmission in isolation from meso/hyperendemic areas. Consequently, transmission from hypoendemic areas could contribute to rapid disease recrudescence in the post-treatment phase of adjacent former meso and hyperendemic areas.

Keywords: control; elimination; hypoendemicity; meso/hyperendemicity; onchocerciasis; transmission

Document Type: Research Article


Affiliations: 1:  The Carter Center, Atlanta, GA, USA 2:  The Carter Center, Yaoundé, Cameroon 3:  Research Foundation for Tropical Diseases and Environment, Buea, Cameroon 4:  Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Douala, Cameroon 5:  Ministry of Public Health, North Region, Cameroon 6:  Ministry of Public Health, Yaoundé, Cameroon

Publication date: 2010-05-01

  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more