Urban malaria and anaemia in children: a cross-sectional survey in two cities of Ghana
To describe the epidemiology of urban malaria, an emerging problem in sub-Saharan Africa. Method
Cross-sectional surveys of communities in Accra and Kumasi, Ghana, determining risk factors for malaria infection and anaemia in children aged 6–60 months. Results
Malaria prevalence rates ranged from 2% to 33% between urban communities. 47.1% of children were anaemic (Hb < 11.0 g/dl). Factors associated with malaria prevalence were low socio-economic status, age and anaemia. The attributable risks of anaemia and severe anaemia (Hb < 8.0 g/dl) caused by malaria were 5% and 23% respectively. Conclusions
Malaria in urban areas displayed a heterogeneity and complexity that differed from the rural environment, which has important implications for malaria control. Marked intra-city variation indicates the importance of targeting specific areas or districts. The most vulnerable group, the urban poor, should be prioritized when designing control measures. This would require careful assessment of the malaria risk pattern in any city to guide an integrated control program.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK 2: Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, Legon, Ghana 3: Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology and Okomfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana
Publication date: May 1, 2006