No evidence of prolonged enterovirus excretion in HIV-seropositive patients
Mutations frequently occur in oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) strains upon replication in the human intestine. These strains occasionally revert to being neurovirulent. The more prolonged the excretion of OPV, the higher the risk of reversion. OPV strains can be secreted for several months in humans presenting humoral immune system deficiencies. The duration of excretion of OPV strains or other enteroviruses in individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is unknown. We investigated whether HIV infection, which is very prevalent in the Central African Republic, causes prolonged excretion of enteroviruses and, in particular, of OPV strains in adults. We studied 28 HIV-infected adults living with children who were immunized with OPV during national immunization days (NIDs). Blood samples were collected to confirm HIV status and to evaluate immunodeficiency before the NIDs. Stool samples for enterovirus isolation were also collected before the NIDs, between the two rounds of immunization and 2, 4 and 6 months after the second round of immunization. No poliovirus was isolated from any stool sample. Eight enteroviruses were isolated from eight adults (maximum one strain per patient). Enteroviruses were not more frequently isolated from severely immunodeficient patients. Thus, HIV-infected adults do not appear to be at high risk of infection with OPV strains and the excretion of enteroviruses (and thus of polioviruses) does not seem to be prolonged in HIV-infected adults.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: August 1, 2005