The spread of the Leu-Phe kdr mutation through Anopheles gambiae complex in Burkina Faso: genetic introgression and de novo phenomena
During extensive sampling in Burkina Faso and other African countries, the Leu-Phe mutation producing the kdr pyrethroid resistance phenotype was reported in both Anopheles gambiae ss and A. arabiensis. This mutation was widely distributed at high frequency in the molecular S form of A. gambiae while it has been observed at a very low frequency in both the molecular M form and A. arabiensis in Burkina Faso. While the mutation in the M form is inherited through an introgression from the S form, its occurrence is a new and independent mutation event in A. arabiensis. Three nucleotides in the upstream intron of the kdr mutation differentiated A. arabiensis from A. gambiae ss and these specific nucleotides were associated with kdr mutation in A. arabiensis. Ecological divergences which facilitated the spread of the kdr mutation within the complex of A. gambiae ss in West Africa, are discussed.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé/Centre Muraz, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso 2: Laboratoire de lutte contre les Insectes Nuisibles/Institut de Recherche pour le Développement-Montpellier, Montpellier Cedex, France 3: CIRAD-EMVT, Programme ECONAP, campus international de Baillarguet, Montpellier Cedex, France 4: Centre de Recherches Entomologiques de Cotonou, Cotonou, Bénin 5: Organisation de Coordination pour la lutte contre les Endémies en Afrique Centrale/Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Yaoundé, Cameroun 6: World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland 7: Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK
Publication date: December 1, 2004